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Tonga Health

Last Update: This Article was Last updated on | Published by : | Category : Tonga

CONTENT


Causes of death across Tonga are changing because of Population Increase, Life Expectancy rise and Living Standard.On this below article we provide graphical representation of major causes of death in Tonga.

Highlights of Tonga BMI and Diet Compositions

Comprehensive data on food supply and consumption is published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data was analyzed by The Global Graph and is published in these below Highlights, Graphs and Tables (Data Quality & definitions)

  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vegetable intake is to range between 200-250g per day and in Tonga average intake is 0.00 grams
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) typically set a guideline of 200g Fruit Intake per day and in Tonga average Fruit intake is 0.00grams
  • In Tonga, average male height is in the decreasing trend and female height is in decreasing trend
  • 75.60% of population is suffering from obesity and this trend is continously increasing from last few years
  • Average Male BMI in Tonga is in the range of obese and Average Female BMI is in range of obese (BMI = Body Mass Index - The WHO define a BMI <=18.5 as 'underweight'; 18.5 to 25 as 'normal/healthy'; 25.0 to 30.0 as 'obese')


Breakdown of the average per capita intake of cereals by specific cereal-based commodity types, measured in kilocalories per person per day. This figure measures the primary equivalent of all food products derived from a given commodity (e.g. "wheat" represents the primary equivalent of its derived products). Data refers to cereal food supply at the consumer level but does not account for consumer wastage in

Cereal Preferences in Tonga
RankCerealskcal/capita/day

This below table shows the Diet Compositions (Average per capita dietary energy supply by commodity groups, measured in kilocalories per person per day) in Tonga

Diet Compositions in Tonga
RankTypekilocalories per person per day

Major Cause of Death


Cardiovascular diseases was a major cause of death in Tonga with 186 registered deaths (in year 2016) i.e. 24% of total deaths. Overall Cardiovascular diseases, Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease and Cancers were the highest types of death causes in Tonga.
    Major Cause of Death in Tonga
  • We see the maximum number of deaths is seen in age group 70+ with 390 deaths (year 2016).
  • 45.83% kids below age 5 years die because of Neonatal disorders.
  • Road accidents, Cancers and Drowning are the major cause of death in kids aged 5 - 14 years.
  • Cancers, Cardiovascular disease and Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases are the major cause of death in people aged 14 - 49 years.
  • Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases, Cardiovascular diseases and Cancers are the major cause of death in people aged over 50 years.
  • Overall, it's observed that 25% of people aging over 50 years die because of Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases.
Read more about Cardiovascular diseases

Major Cause of Deaths in Tonga (and it's count) Number of Deaths in Tonga - Age wise (only due to Major diseases)

Major Risk Factors of Death


  • Three Major factors of death in Tonga are High blood sugar, High body-mass index (obesity) and High blood pressure. Every year around 2 people die due to High blood sugar.
  • Low birth weight and Child wasting are the major risk factor of kids death aging under 5 years.
  • Iron deficiency and Household air pollution are the major risk factors of death of people aging between 5 to 14 years.
  • High body-mass index (obesity), High blood sugar and Smoking are the death risk factors of people aging between 15 to 49 years.
  • High body-mass index (obesity), High blood sugar and High blood pressure are the major death risk factors of people aging between 50 to 69 years.
  • High blood sugar is the major death risk factors for people aging more than 70 years.


Major Cause of Deaths in Tonga (and it's count)

Cancer Analysis


0.46% of Tonga population was suffering from cancer i.e. 316 people (average of years 2011-2016). Highest number of cancer patients deaths were recorded due to Breast cancer (Count : 18) and Liver cancer was also concerning with 12 deaths in a year. In last few years it has been observed that, people suffering from Stomach cancer have 20% of survival chance.Tonga was really successful in diagnosing Thyroid cancerTesticular cancerGallbladder & biliary tract cancer where 100% of people were cured.Highest number of cancer patients i.e. 118 people were of age group 70+ year olds.In 2016, 119 were suffering from Breast cancer out of which 18 people were dead. This means 15.13% death rate of people suffering from Breast cancer. This below data represents major cancer types in Tonga and number of deaths due to particular cancer types :

    Highlights of Cancer in Tonga :
  • 0.46 % of Tonga population is suffering from cancer
  • Highest number of deaths were registered due to Breast cancer
  • Thyroid cancerTesticular cancerGallbladder & biliary tract cancer was most cured cancer in Tonga
  • Breast cancer got lowest survival rate
Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Tonga

Tables (Appendix)


Major Cause of Deaths in Tonga (and it's count)
Cause of Death Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Dementia 31 3.99%
Cardiovascular diseases 186 23.94%
Kidney disease 42 5.41%
Respiratory disease 46 5.92%
Liver disease 14 1.8%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 154 19.82%
Digestive disease 30 3.86%
Hepatitis 7 0.9%
Cancers 132 16.99%
Parkinson's disease 2 0.26%
Fire 4 0.51%
Malaria 0 0%
Drowning 8 1.03%
Homicide 3 0.39%
HIV/AIDS 3 0.39%
Drug disorder 1 0.13%
Tuberculosis 1 0.13%
Road incidents 14 1.8%
Maternal deaths 4 0.51%
Neonatal deaths 22 2.83%
Alcohol disorder 1 0.13%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 4 0.51%
Liver disease 14 1.83%
Neonatal deaths 22 2.88%
Digestive disease 30 3.93%
Dementia 31 4.06%
Lower respiratory infections 38.8772925776 5.09%
Kidney disease 42 5.5%
Respiratory disease 46 6.02%
Cancers 132 17.28%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 154 20.16%
Cardiovascular diseases 186 24.35%


Tonga - Cause of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Homicide 0 0%
Congenital birth defects 1 2.08%
Lower respiratory infections 2 4.17%
Neonatal infections 0 0%
Nutritional deficiencies 0 0%
Cardiovascular disease 1 2.08%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 0 0%
Cancers 22 45.83%
Drowning 1 2.08%
Protein-energy malnutrition 0 0%
Road accidents 0 0%
Digestive diseases 1 2.08%
Diarrheal diseases 0 0%
Fire 1 2.08%
Kidney disease 1 2.08%
Hepatitis 0 0%
Homicide 1 2.08%
Liver disease 1 2.08%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 0 0%
Measles 0 0%
HIV/AIDS 1 2.08%
Tuberculosis 6 12.5%
Drug use disorders 5 10.42%
Natural disasters 0 0%
4 8.33%


Tonga - Cause of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 0 0%
Homicide 0 0%
Nutritional deficiencies 0 0%
Protein-energy malnutrition 0 0%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 0 0%
Road accidents 1 16.67%
Tuberculosis 0 0%
HIV/AIDS 0 0%
Drowning 1 16.67%
Malaria 0 0%
Fire 0 0%
Cancers 1 16.67%
Hepatitis 0 0%
Digestive diseases 1 16.67%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 0 0%
Liver disease 0 0%
Respiratory disease 0 0%
Kidney disease 0 0%
Cardiovascular disease 1 16.67%
Lower respiratory infections 1 16.67%


Tonga - Cause of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 6 5.31%
Homicide 2 1.77%
Nutritional deficiencies 0 0%
Protein-energy malnutrition 0 0%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 0 0%
Road accidents 9 7.96%
Tuberculosis 0 0%
HIV/AIDS 2 1.77%
Drowning 6 5.31%
Malaria 0 0%
Fire 2 1.77%
Cancers 22 19.47%
Hepatitis 3 2.65%
Digestive diseases 5 4.42%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 15 13.27%
Liver disease 5 4.42%
Respiratory disease 5 4.42%
Kidney disease 5 4.42%
Cardiovascular disease 21 18.58%
Drug disorder 0 0%
Alcohol disorder 0 0%
Parkinson's disease 0 0%
Dementia 0 0%
Lower respiratory infections 5 4.42%


Tonga - Cause of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 1 0.49%
Homicide 0 0%
Nutritional deficiencies 0 0%
Protein-energy malnutrition 0 0%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 0 0%
Road accidents 2 0.98%
Tuberculosis 0 0%
HIV/AIDS 1 0.49%
Drowning 1 0.49%
Malaria 0 0%
Fire 1 0.49%
Cancers 47 23.04%
Hepatitis 3 1.47%
Digestive diseases 8 3.92%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 52 25.49%
Liver disease 5 2.45%
Respiratory disease 10 4.9%
Kidney disease 12 5.88%
Cardiovascular diseases 51 25%
Dementia 2 0.98%
Parkinson's disease 0 0%
Drug disorder 0 0%
Alcohol disorder 0 0%
Lower respiratory infections 8 3.92%


Tonga - Cause of Death in Age : 70 + years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 1 0.25%
Homicide 0 0%
Nutritional deficiencies 4 1%
Protein-energy malnutrition 3 0.75%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 3 0.75%
Road accidents 2 0.5%
Tuberculosis 1 0.25%
HIV/AIDS 0 0%
Drowning 0 0%
Malaria 0 0%
Fire 1 0.25%
Cancers 61 15.17%
Hepatitis 1 0.25%
Digestive diseases 16 3.98%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 86 21.39%
Liver disease 4 1%
Respiratory disease 30 7.46%
Kidney disease 24 5.97%
Cardiovascular disease 113 28.11%
Parkinson's disease 2 0.5%
Dementia 29 7.21%
Drug use disorders 0 0%
Alcohol use disorders 0 0%
Lower respiratory infections 21 5.22%


Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Tonga
Major Risk Factors Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unsafe water source 2 0.23%
Poor sanitation 1 0.11%
No access to handwashing facility 2 0.23%
Household air pollution 34 3.85%
Outdoor air pollution 5 0.57%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 1 0.11%
Discontinued breastfeeding 0 0%
Child wasting 4 0.45%
Child stunting 0 0%
Low birth weight 11 1.25%
Secondhand smoke 18 2.04%
Alcohol use 4 0.45%
Drug use 1 0.11%
Diet low in fruits 34 3.85%
Diet low in vegetables 26 2.94%
Unsafe sex 12 1.36%
Low physical activity 19 2.15%
High blood sugar 210 23.78%
High cholesterol 54 6.12%
High body-mass index (obesity) 184 20.84%
High blood pressure 139 15.74%
Smoking 115 13.02%
Iron deficiency 3 0.34%
Zinc deficiency 0 0%
Vitamin-A deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 4 0.45%


Tonga - Risk of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Discontinued breastfeeding 0 0%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 1 5.56%
Child stunting 0 0%
Low birth weight 11 61.11%
Drug use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 0 0%
Secondhand smoke 0 0%
Poor sanitation 0 0%
Unsafe water source 0 0%
Household air pollution 1 5.56%
Outdoor air pollution 0 0%
High body-mass index (obesity) 0 0%
High blood pressure 0 0%
High blood sugar 0 0%
Child wasting 4 22.22%
Iron deficiency 1 5.56%


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Tonga - Risk of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths


Tonga - Risk of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 0 0%
Drug use 1 0.88%
Alcohol use 4 3.51%
No access to handwashing facility 0 0%
Unsafe water source 0 0%
Poor sanitation 0 0%
Smoking 16 14.04%
Secondhand smoke 2 1.75%
Low physical activity 2 1.75%
Diet low in fruits 6 5.26%
Diet low in vegetables 5 4.39%
Unsafe sex 3 2.63%
High body-mass index (obesity) 27 23.68%
Household air pollution 5 4.39%
Outdoor air pollution 1 0.88%
High total cholesterol 10 8.77%
High blood pressure 14 12.28%
High blood sugar 18 15.79%


Tonga - Risk of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 0 0%
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use 1 0.34%
No access to handwashing facility 0 0%
Poor sanitation 0 0%
Unsafe sex 3 1.02%
Smoking 41 13.95%
Secondhand smoke 6 2.04%
Unsafe water source 0 0%
Diet low in vegetables 9 3.06%
Diet low in fruits 13 4.42%
Low physical activity 5 1.7%
Outdoor air pollution 2 0.68%
Household air pollution 10 3.4%
High body-mass index (obesity) 74 25.17%
High blood sugar 69 23.47%
High total cholesterol 19 6.46%
High blood pressure 42 14.29%


Tonga - Risk of Death in Age : 70+ years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 1 0.22%
Low bone mineral density 4 0.88%
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use -1 -0.22%
Smoking 57 12.56%
Secondhand smoke 10 2.2%
Household air pollution 18 3.96%
Outdoor air pollution 3 0.66%
No access to handwashing facility 1 0.22%
Poor sanitation 1 0.22%
Unsafe water source 2 0.44%
Unsafe sex 5 1.1%
Low physical activity 12 2.64%
Diet low in vegetables 12 2.64%
Diet low in fruits 15 3.3%
High cholesterol 25 5.51%
High blood pressure 84 18.5%
High blood sugar 122 26.87%
High body-mass index (obesity) 83 18.28%


Tonga - Number of Deaths by Cancer Type
Cancer Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Liver cancer Patients : 22 | Deaths : 12 54.55%
Breast cancer Patients : 119 | Deaths : 18 15.13%
Larynx cancer Patients : 3 | Deaths : 1 33.33%
Kidney cancer Patients : 7 | Deaths : 1 14.29%
Thyroid cancer Patients : 4 | Deaths : 0 0%
Ovarian cancer Patients : 5 | Deaths : 1 20%
Stomach cancer Patients : 15 | Deaths : 12 80%
Uterine cancer Patients : 13 | Deaths : 2 15.38%
Bladder cancer Patients : 6 | Deaths : 1 16.67%
Cervical cancer Patients : 46 | Deaths : 9 19.57%
Prostate cancer Patients : 42 | Deaths : 10 23.81%
Testicular cancer Patients : 1 | Deaths : 0 0%
Pancreatic cancer Patients : 4 | Deaths : 2 50%
Esophageal cancer Patients : 2 | Deaths : 1 50%
Nasopharynx cancer Patients : 4 | Deaths : 1 25%
Colon & rectum cancer Patients : 17 | Deaths : 6 35.29%
Non-melanoma skin cancer Patients : 13 | Deaths : 2 15.38%
Lip & oral cancer Patients : 14 | Deaths : 2 14.29%
Brain & nervous system cancer Patients : 5 | Deaths : 2 40%
Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Patients : 20 | Deaths : 1 5%
Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer Patients : 1 | Deaths : 0 0%


Tonga - Number of Deaths due to Cancer - Age Wise
Age Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Under-5s 3 0.95%
5-14 year olds 2 0.63%
15-49 year olds 79 25%
50-69 year olds 114 36.08%
70+ year olds 118 37.34%


Source :
http://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/gd004/
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327525347307/8392086-1327528510568/WDR09_bookweb_1.pdf

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