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Ghana Health

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CONTENT


Causes of death across Ghana are changing because of Population Increase, Life Expectancy rise and Living Standard.On this below article we provide graphical representation of major causes of death in Ghana.

Highlights of Ghana BMI and Diet Compositions

Comprehensive data on food supply and consumption is published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data was analyzed by The Global Graph and is published in these below Highlights, Graphs and Tables (Data Quality & definitions)

  • As per United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), average person in Ghana gets their caloric supply from :
    • Carbohydrates : 116.27%116.27%
    • Fat : 20.52%20.52%
    • Plant protein : 9.39%9.39%
    • Animal protein : 3.42%3.42%
  • 49.60% increase in caloric supply : Currently Ghana gets 3016/kilocalories per person per day worth of caloric supply when compared to 2016/kilocalories per person per day in Year 1961
  • Starchy Roots, Cereals & Grains and Fruits & Vegetables are three major diet compositions in Ghana
  • Rice, Maize and Wheat are three major Cereal preferences in Ghana
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vegetable intake is to range between 200-250g per day and in Ghana average intake is 116.77 grams
  • Plantains, Oranges & Mandarines and Pineapples are three major Fruit Types Intake in Ghana
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) typically set a guideline of 200g Fruit Intake per day and in Ghana average Fruit intake is 537.51grams
  • In Ghana, average male height is in the decreasing trend and female height is in decreasing trend
  • 29.30% of population is suffering from obesity and this trend is continously increasing from last few years
  • Average Male BMI in Ghana is in the range of normal and Average Female BMI is in range of normal (BMI = Body Mass Index - The WHO define a BMI <=18.5 as 'underweight'; 18.5 to 25 as 'normal/healthy'; 25.0 to 30.0 as 'obese')


Breakdown of the average per capita intake of cereals by specific cereal-based commodity types, measured in kilocalories per person per day. This figure measures the primary equivalent of all food products derived from a given commodity (e.g. "wheat" represents the primary equivalent of its derived products). Data refers to cereal food supply at the consumer level but does not account for consumer wastage in

Cereal Preferences in Ghana
RankCerealskcal/capita/day
1Rice304
2Maize222
3Wheat109
4Sorghum53
5Oats1
6Rye0

This below table shows the Diet Compositions (Average per capita dietary energy supply by commodity groups, measured in kilocalories per person per day) in Ghana

Diet Compositions in Ghana
RankTypekilocalories per person per day
1Starchy Roots1171
2Cereals & Grains725
3Fruits & Vegetables395
4Oils & Fats293
5Sugar145
6Meat112
7Pulses83
8Other57
9Alcoholic Beverages18
10Dairy & Eggs17

Major Cause of Death


Cardiovascular diseases was a major cause of death in Ghana with 34454 registered deaths (in year 2016) i.e. 19% of total deaths. Overall Cardiovascular diseases, Malaria and Neonatal deaths were the highest types of death causes in Ghana.
    Major Cause of Death in Ghana
  • We see the maximum number of deaths is seen in age group Under-5 with 48348 deaths (year 2016).
  • 35.99% kids below age 5 years die because of Neonatal disorders.
  • Malaria, HIV/AIDS and Lower respiratory infections are the major cause of death in kids aged 5 - 14 years.
  • HIV/AIDS, Cardiovascular disease and Cancers are the major cause of death in people aged 14 - 49 years.
  • Cardiovascular diseases, Cancers and Lower respiratory infections are the major cause of death in people aged over 50 years.
  • Overall, it's observed that 30% of people aging over 50 years die because of Cardiovascular diseases.
Read more about Cardiovascular diseases

Major Cause of Deaths in Ghana (and it's count) Number of Deaths in Ghana - Age wise (only due to Major diseases)

Major Risk Factors of Death


  • Three Major factors of death in Ghana are High blood pressure, Alcohol use and Household air pollution. Every year around 3210 people die due to High blood pressure.
  • Low birth weight and Child wasting are the major risk factor of kids death aging under 5 years.
  • Unsafe sex and Household air pollution are the major risk factors of death of people aging between 5 to 14 years.
  • Unsafe sex, Alcohol use and High blood pressure are the death risk factors of people aging between 15 to 49 years.
  • High blood pressure, Alcohol use and High body-mass index (obesity) are the major death risk factors of people aging between 50 to 69 years.
  • High blood pressure is the major death risk factors for people aging more than 70 years.


Major Cause of Deaths in Ghana (and it's count)

Cancer Analysis


0.19% of Ghana population was suffering from cancer i.e. 28123 people (average of years 2011-2016). Highest number of cancer patients deaths were recorded due to Cervical cancer (Count : 1479) and Liver cancer was also concerning with 1250 deaths in a year. In last few years it has been observed that, people suffering from Stomach cancer have 3% of survival chance.Ghana was really successful in diagnosing Kidney cancer where 92% of people were cured.Highest number of cancer patients i.e. 11160 people were of age group 50-69 year olds.In 2016, 8733 were suffering from Cervical cancer out of which 1479 people were dead. This means 16.94% death rate of people suffering from Cervical cancer. This below data represents major cancer types in Ghana and number of deaths due to particular cancer types :

    Highlights of Cancer in Ghana :
  • 0.19 % of Ghana population is suffering from cancer
  • Highest number of deaths were registered due to Cervical cancer
  • Kidney cancer was most cured cancer in Ghana
  • Cervical cancer got lowest survival rate
Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Ghana

Tables (Appendix)


Major Cause of Deaths in Ghana (and it's count)
Cause of Death Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Dementia 1990 1.11%
Cardiovascular diseases 34454 19.21%
Kidney disease 2380 1.33%
Respiratory disease 3982 2.22%
Liver disease 5987 3.34%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 10810 6.03%
Digestive disease 3855 2.15%
Hepatitis 614 0.34%
Cancers 15413 8.59%
Parkinson's disease 171 0.1%
Fire 743 0.41%
Malaria 19674 10.97%
Drowning 909 0.51%
Homicide 1007 0.56%
HIV/AIDS 14002 7.81%
Drug disorder 275 0.15%
Tuberculosis 6193 3.45%
Road incidents 3635 2.03%
Maternal deaths 1265 0.71%
Neonatal deaths 18168 10.13%
Alcohol disorder 242 0.13%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 4289 2.39%
Meningitis 4816.42856149 2.69%
Liver disease 5987 3.34%
Tuberculosis 6193 3.45%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 10810 6.03%
HIV/AIDS 14002 7.81%
Cancers 15413 8.59%
Lower respiratory infections 16576.4614396 9.24%
Neonatal deaths 18168 10.13%
Malaria 19674 10.97%
Cardiovascular diseases 34454 19.21%


Ghana - Cause of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Homicide 58 0.11%
Malaria 2043 4.05%
Neonatal infections 2106 4.17%
Congenital birth defects 0 0%
Lower respiratory infections 24 0.05%
Nutritional deficiencies 1455 2.88%
Protein-energy malnutrition 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 18168 35.99%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 196 0.39%
HIV/AIDS 52 0.1%
Cancers 567 1.12%
Measles 138 0.27%
Digestive diseases 12071 23.91%
Cardiovascular disease 132 0.26%
Road accidents 272 0.54%
Drowning 35 0.07%
Fire 214 0.42%
Kidney disease 709 1.4%
Homicide 57 0.11%
Liver disease 84 0.17%
Tuberculosis 199 0.39%
Hepatitis 3936 7.8%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 3502 6.94%
Drug use disorders 266 0.53%
Natural disasters 4194 8.31%


Ghana - Cause of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 24 0.52%
Homicide 37 0.81%
Nutritional deficiencies 80 1.74%
Protein-energy malnutrition 66 1.44%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 10 0.22%
Diarrheal diseases 164 3.57%
Road accidents 220 4.79%
Tuberculosis 39 0.85%
HIV/AIDS 813 17.7%
Drowning 146 3.18%
Malaria 1644 35.79%
Fire 50 1.09%
Cancers 269 5.86%
Hepatitis 26 0.57%
Digestive diseases 72 1.57%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 330 7.18%
Liver disease 59 1.28%
Respiratory disease 34 0.74%
Kidney disease 66 1.44%
Cardiovascular disease 91 1.98%
Lower respiratory infections 353 7.69%


Ghana - Cause of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 764 1.87%
Homicide 799 1.96%
Nutritional deficiencies 189 0.46%
Protein-energy malnutrition 115 0.28%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 104 0.25%
Diarrheal diseases 910 2.23%
Road accidents 1848 4.52%
Tuberculosis 2057 5.03%
HIV/AIDS 10381 25.4%
Drowning 368 0.9%
Malaria 2989 7.31%
Fire 209 0.51%
Cancers 3935 9.63%
Hepatitis 351 0.86%
Digestive diseases 1119 2.74%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 2876 7.04%
Liver disease 2507 6.13%
Respiratory disease 731 1.79%
Kidney disease 791 1.94%
Cardiovascular disease 4586 11.22%
Drug disorder 197 0.48%
Alcohol disorder 122 0.3%
Parkinson's disease 2 0%
Dementia 5 0.01%
Lower respiratory infections 2910 7.12%


Ghana - Cause of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 405 0.95%
Homicide 92 0.22%
Nutritional deficiencies 200 0.47%
Protein-energy malnutrition 132 0.31%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 36 0.08%
Diarrheal diseases 785 1.85%
Road accidents 886 2.09%
Tuberculosis 2230 5.25%
HIV/AIDS 2103 4.95%
Drowning 152 0.36%
Malaria 1783 4.2%
Fire 179 0.42%
Cancers 6592 15.53%
Hepatitis 164 0.39%
Digestive diseases 1245 2.93%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 3490 8.22%
Liver disease 2361 5.56%
Respiratory disease 1399 3.3%
Kidney disease 716 1.69%
Cardiovascular diseases 12899 30.39%
Dementia 211 0.5%
Parkinson's disease 22 0.05%
Drug disorder 49 0.12%
Alcohol disorder 87 0.2%
Lower respiratory infections 4227 9.96%


Ghana - Cause of Death in Age : 70 + years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 205 0.48%
Homicide 20 0.05%
Nutritional deficiencies 336 0.79%
Protein-energy malnutrition 282 0.66%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 20 0.05%
Diarrheal diseases 974 2.29%
Road accidents 486 1.14%
Tuberculosis 1815 4.27%
HIV/AIDS 137 0.32%
Drowning 106 0.25%
Malaria 1187 2.79%
Fire 172 0.4%
Cancers 4344 10.23%
Hepatitis 37 0.09%
Digestive diseases 1205 2.84%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 3406 8.02%
Liver disease 1002 2.36%
Respiratory disease 1775 4.18%
Kidney disease 723 1.7%
Cardiovascular disease 16678 39.27%
Parkinson's disease 146 0.34%
Dementia 1774 4.18%
Drug use disorders 28 0.07%
Alcohol use disorders 32 0.08%
Lower respiratory infections 5585 13.15%


Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Ghana
Major Risk Factors Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unsafe water source 3210 2.26%
Poor sanitation 2526 1.77%
No access to handwashing facility 4388 3.08%
Household air pollution 14458 10.16%
Outdoor air pollution 11803 8.29%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 441 0.31%
Discontinued breastfeeding 21 0.01%
Child wasting 5100 3.58%
Child stunting 412 0.29%
Low birth weight 5883 4.13%
Secondhand smoke 722 0.51%
Alcohol use 14692 10.32%
Drug use 757 0.53%
Diet low in fruits 1707 1.2%
Diet low in vegetables 4681 3.29%
Unsafe sex 13838 9.72%
Low physical activity 1940 1.36%
High blood sugar 11057 7.77%
High cholesterol 6200 4.36%
High body-mass index (obesity) 11202 7.87%
High blood pressure 21231 14.92%
Smoking 4321 3.04%
Iron deficiency 274 0.19%
Zinc deficiency 68 0.05%
Vitamin-A deficiency 75 0.05%
Low bone mineral density 1317 0.93%


Ghana - Risk of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Discontinued breastfeeding 21 0.12%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 441 2.49%
Child stunting 412 2.33%
Low birth weight 5883 33.21%
Drug use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 1169 6.6%
Secondhand smoke 97 0.55%
Poor sanitation 857 4.84%
Unsafe water source 1090 6.15%
Household air pollution 1452 8.2%
Outdoor air pollution 1144 6.46%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1 0.01%
High blood pressure 1 0.01%
High blood sugar 10 0.06%
Child wasting 5100 28.79%
Iron deficiency 37 0.21%


Ghana - Risk of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use 3 0.3%
No access to handwashing facility 126 12.41%
Unsafe water source 123 12.12%
Unsafe sex 231 22.76%
Iron deficiency 132 13%
Secondhand smoke 11 1.08%
Household air pollution 149 14.68%
Outdoor air pollution 115 11.33%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1 0.1%
High blood sugar 13 1.28%
High blood pressure 2 0.2%
Poor sanitation 97 9.56%
Iron deficiency 12 1.18%


Ghana - Risk of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 132 0.42%
Low bone mineral density 47 0.15%
Drug use 597 1.89%
Alcohol use 4469 14.17%
No access to handwashing facility 840 2.66%
Unsafe water source 681 2.16%
Poor sanitation 536 1.7%
Smoking 653 2.07%
Secondhand smoke 124 0.39%
Low physical activity 117 0.37%
Diet low in fruits 441 1.4%
Diet low in vegetables 856 2.71%
Unsafe sex 10475 33.22%
High body-mass index (obesity) 2295 7.28%
Household air pollution 2377 7.54%
Outdoor air pollution 1967 6.24%
High total cholesterol 1055 3.35%
High blood pressure 2558 8.11%
High blood sugar 1310 4.15%


Ghana - Risk of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 51 0.1%
Low bone mineral density 279 0.57%
Drug use 123 0.25%
Alcohol use 6350 12.97%
No access to handwashing facility 983 2.01%
Poor sanitation 462 0.94%
Unsafe sex 2774 5.67%
Smoking 2077 4.24%
Secondhand smoke 249 0.51%
Unsafe water source 587 1.2%
Diet low in vegetables 2061 4.21%
Diet low in fruits 726 1.48%
Low physical activity 629 1.28%
Outdoor air pollution 4171 8.52%
Household air pollution 5057 10.33%
High body-mass index (obesity) 5820 11.89%
High blood sugar 4601 9.4%
High total cholesterol 2954 6.03%
High blood pressure 9004 18.39%


Ghana - Risk of Death in Age : 70+ years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 41 0.1%
Low bone mineral density 991 2.3%
Drug use 36 0.08%
Alcohol use 3870 8.98%
Smoking 1591 3.69%
Secondhand smoke 241 0.56%
Household air pollution 5424 12.59%
Outdoor air pollution 4406 10.22%
No access to handwashing facility 1271 2.95%
Poor sanitation 574 1.33%
Unsafe water source 729 1.69%
Unsafe sex 357 0.83%
Low physical activity 1193 2.77%
Diet low in vegetables 1764 4.09%
Diet low in fruits 540 1.25%
High cholesterol 2191 5.08%
High blood pressure 9666 22.43%
High blood sugar 5124 11.89%
High body-mass index (obesity) 3085 7.16%


Ghana - Number of Deaths by Cancer Type
Cancer Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Liver cancer Patients : 2624 | Deaths : 1250 47.64%
Breast cancer Patients : 5996 | Deaths : 1101 18.36%
Larynx cancer Patients : 371 | Deaths : 155 41.78%
Kidney cancer Patients : 1944 | Deaths : 162 8.33%
Thyroid cancer Patients : 126 | Deaths : 25 19.84%
Ovarian cancer Patients : 989 | Deaths : 277 28.01%
Stomach cancer Patients : 1050 | Deaths : 1023 97.43%
Uterine cancer Patients : 1541 | Deaths : 333 21.61%
Bladder cancer Patients : 1138 | Deaths : 280 24.6%
Cervical cancer Patients : 8733 | Deaths : 1479 16.94%
Prostate cancer Patients : 3450 | Deaths : 1096 31.77%
Testicular cancer Patients : 63 | Deaths : 14 22.22%
Pancreatic cancer Patients : 1046 | Deaths : 573 54.78%
Esophageal cancer Patients : 388 | Deaths : 298 76.8%
Nasopharynx cancer Patients : 119 | Deaths : 29 24.37%
Colon & rectum cancer Patients : 1843 | Deaths : 822 44.6%
Non-melanoma skin cancer Patients : 237 | Deaths : 58 24.47%
Lip & oral cancer Patients : 1333 | Deaths : 204 15.3%
Brain & nervous system cancer Patients : 1396 | Deaths : 652 46.7%
Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Patients : 646 | Deaths : 245 37.93%
Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer Patients : 132 | Deaths : 123 93.18%


Ghana - Number of Deaths due to Cancer - Age Wise
Age Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Under-5s 2615 9.3%
5-14 year olds 492 1.75%
15-49 year olds 8632 30.69%
50-69 year olds 11160 39.68%
70+ year olds 5223 18.57%


Source :
http://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/gd004/
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327525347307/8392086-1327528510568/WDR09_bookweb_1.pdf

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