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Gambia Health

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CONTENT


Causes of death across Gambia are changing because of Population Increase, Life Expectancy rise and Living Standard.On this below article we provide graphical representation of major causes of death in Gambia.

Highlights of Gambia BMI and Diet Compositions

Comprehensive data on food supply and consumption is published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data was analyzed by The Global Graph and is published in these below Highlights, Graphs and Tables (Data Quality & definitions)

  • As per United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), average person in Gambia gets their caloric supply from :
    • Carbohydrates : 84.09%84.09%
    • Fat : 31.02%31.02%
    • Plant protein : 9.17%9.17%
    • Animal protein : 2.73%2.73%
  • 27.02% increase in caloric supply : Currently Gambia gets 2628/kilocalories per person per day worth of caloric supply when compared to 2069/kilocalories per person per day in Year 1961
  • Cereals & Grains, Oils & Fats and Sugar are three major diet compositions in Gambia
  • Rice, Wheat and Maize are three major Cereal preferences in Gambia
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vegetable intake is to range between 200-250g per day and in Gambia average intake is 58.33 grams
  • Oranges & Mandarines, Apples and Dates are three major Fruit Types Intake in Gambia
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) typically set a guideline of 200g Fruit Intake per day and in Gambia average Fruit intake is 23.64grams
  • In Gambia, average male height is in the decreasing trend and female height is in decreasing trend
  • 27.90% of population is suffering from obesity and this trend is continously increasing from last few years
  • Average Male BMI in Gambia is in the range of normal and Average Female BMI is in range of normal (BMI = Body Mass Index - The WHO define a BMI <=18.5 as 'underweight'; 18.5 to 25 as 'normal/healthy'; 25.0 to 30.0 as 'obese')


Breakdown of the average per capita intake of cereals by specific cereal-based commodity types, measured in kilocalories per person per day. This figure measures the primary equivalent of all food products derived from a given commodity (e.g. "wheat" represents the primary equivalent of its derived products). Data refers to cereal food supply at the consumer level but does not account for consumer wastage in

Cereal Preferences in Gambia
RankCerealskcal/capita/day
1Rice601
2Wheat363
3Maize123
4Sorghum107
5Rye4
6Oats0

This below table shows the Diet Compositions (Average per capita dietary energy supply by commodity groups, measured in kilocalories per person per day) in Gambia

Diet Compositions in Gambia
RankTypekilocalories per person per day
1Cereals & Grains1619
2Oils & Fats499
3Sugar258
4Dairy & Eggs88
5Meat69
6Alcoholic Beverages28
7Fruits & Vegetables23
8Starchy Roots22
9Pulses12
10Other10

Major Cause of Death


Cardiovascular diseases was a major cause of death in Gambia with 1559 registered deaths (in year 2016) i.e. 15% of total deaths. Overall Cardiovascular diseases, Neonatal deaths and Lower respiratory infections were the highest types of death causes in Gambia.
    Major Cause of Death in Gambia
  • We see the maximum number of deaths is seen in age group Under-5 with 3851 deaths (year 2016).
  • 37.51% kids below age 5 years die because of Neonatal disorders.
  • Lower respiratory infections, Diarrheal diseases and HIV/AIDS are the major cause of death in kids aged 5 - 14 years.
  • HIV/AIDS, Cancers and Cardiovascular disease are the major cause of death in people aged 14 - 49 years.
  • Cardiovascular diseases, Cancers and Lower respiratory infections are the major cause of death in people aged over 50 years.
  • Overall, it's observed that 28% of people aging over 50 years die because of Cardiovascular diseases.
Read more about Cardiovascular diseases

Major Cause of Deaths in Gambia (and it's count) Number of Deaths in Gambia - Age wise (only due to Major diseases)

Major Risk Factors of Death


  • Three Major factors of death in Gambia are High blood pressure, Household air pollution and Unsafe sex. Every year around 497 people die due to High blood pressure.
  • Child wasting and Low birth weight are the major risk factor of kids death aging under 5 years.
  • Iron deficiency and Unsafe water source are the major risk factors of death of people aging between 5 to 14 years.
  • Unsafe sex, High blood pressure and Household air pollution are the death risk factors of people aging between 15 to 49 years.
  • High blood pressure, Household air pollution and High body-mass index (obesity) are the major death risk factors of people aging between 50 to 69 years.
  • High blood pressure is the major death risk factors for people aging more than 70 years.


Major Cause of Deaths in Gambia (and it's count)

Cancer Analysis


0.14% of Gambia population was suffering from cancer i.e. 1275 people (average of years 2011-2016). Highest number of cancer patients deaths were recorded due to Liver cancer (Count : 252) and Cervical cancer was also concerning with 69 deaths in a year. In last few years it has been observed that, people suffering from Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer have 0% of survival chance.Gambia was really successful in diagnosing Kidney cancer where 86% of people were cured.Highest number of cancer patients i.e. 573 people were of age group 15-49 year olds.In 2016, 394 were suffering from Liver cancer out of which 252 people were dead. This means 63.96% death rate of people suffering from Liver cancer. This below data represents major cancer types in Gambia and number of deaths due to particular cancer types :

    Highlights of Cancer in Gambia :
  • 0.14 % of Gambia population is suffering from cancer
  • Highest number of deaths were registered due to Liver cancer
  • Kidney cancer was most cured cancer in Gambia
  • Liver cancer got lowest survival rate
Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Gambia

Tables (Appendix)


Major Cause of Deaths in Gambia (and it's count)
Cause of Death Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Dementia 99 0.96%
Cardiovascular diseases 1559 15.06%
Kidney disease 127 1.23%
Respiratory disease 238 2.3%
Liver disease 229 2.21%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 430 4.15%
Digestive disease 209 2.02%
Hepatitis 31 0.3%
Cancers 941 9.09%
Parkinson's disease 8 0.08%
Fire 48 0.46%
Malaria 286 2.76%
Drowning 73 0.71%
Homicide 24 0.23%
HIV/AIDS 877 8.47%
Drug disorder 14 0.14%
Tuberculosis 459 4.43%
Road incidents 184 1.78%
Maternal deaths 252 2.43%
Neonatal deaths 1443 13.94%
Alcohol disorder 9 0.09%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 694 6.7%
Nutritional deficiencies 291 2.81%
Meningitis 364.32918616 3.52%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 430 4.15%
Tuberculosis 459 4.43%
Diarrheal diseases 694 6.7%
HIV/AIDS 877 8.47%
Cancers 941 9.09%
Lower respiratory infections 1063.16045766 10.27%
Neonatal deaths 1443 13.94%
Cardiovascular diseases 1559 15.06%


Gambia - Cause of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Homicide 2 0.05%
Lower respiratory infections 194 5.04%
Diarrheal diseases 199 5.17%
Congenital birth defects 0 0%
Neonatal infections 2 0.05%
Nutritional deficiencies 416 10.81%
Protein-energy malnutrition 0 0%
Malaria 1443 37.51%
Measles 18 0.47%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 20 0.52%
HIV/AIDS 25 0.65%
Digestive diseases 19 0.49%
Cardiovascular disease 173 4.5%
Tuberculosis 15 0.39%
Drowning 17 0.44%
Road accidents 3 0.08%
Cancers 22 0.57%
Fire 56 1.46%
Kidney disease 4 0.1%
Liver disease 9 0.23%
Hepatitis 20 0.52%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 313 8.14%
Homicide 479 12.45%
Drug use disorders 101 2.63%
Natural disasters 297 7.72%


Gambia - Cause of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 2 0.69%
Homicide 1 0.35%
Nutritional deficiencies 13 4.5%
Protein-energy malnutrition 13 4.5%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 1 0.35%
Diarrheal diseases 34 11.76%
Road accidents 20 6.92%
Tuberculosis 8 2.77%
HIV/AIDS 28 9.69%
Drowning 18 6.23%
Malaria 26 9%
Fire 5 1.73%
Cancers 23 7.96%
Hepatitis 2 0.69%
Digestive diseases 7 2.42%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 22 7.61%
Liver disease 4 1.38%
Respiratory disease 4 1.38%
Kidney disease 5 1.73%
Cardiovascular disease 10 3.46%
Lower respiratory infections 43 14.88%


Gambia - Cause of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 38 1.69%
Homicide 19 0.84%
Nutritional deficiencies 26 1.16%
Protein-energy malnutrition 22 0.98%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 6 0.27%
Diarrheal diseases 84 3.73%
Road accidents 86 3.82%
Tuberculosis 176 7.83%
HIV/AIDS 698 31.04%
Drowning 22 0.98%
Malaria 41 1.82%
Fire 10 0.44%
Cancers 332 14.76%
Hepatitis 17 0.76%
Digestive diseases 58 2.58%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 105 4.67%
Liver disease 82 3.65%
Respiratory disease 39 1.73%
Kidney disease 37 1.65%
Cardiovascular disease 216 9.6%
Drug disorder 11 0.49%
Alcohol disorder 4 0.18%
Parkinson's disease 0 0%
Dementia 0 0%
Lower respiratory infections 120 5.34%


Gambia - Cause of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 20 0.99%
Homicide 2 0.1%
Nutritional deficiencies 22 1.09%
Protein-energy malnutrition 18 0.89%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 2 0.1%
Diarrheal diseases 73 3.6%
Road accidents 38 1.88%
Tuberculosis 138 6.81%
HIV/AIDS 115 5.68%
Drowning 8 0.39%
Malaria 28 1.38%
Fire 9 0.44%
Cancers 379 18.71%
Hepatitis 7 0.35%
Digestive diseases 63 3.11%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 120 5.92%
Liver disease 95 4.69%
Respiratory disease 84 4.15%
Kidney disease 37 1.83%
Cardiovascular diseases 573 28.28%
Dementia 11 0.54%
Parkinson's disease 1 0.05%
Drug disorder 2 0.1%
Alcohol disorder 3 0.15%
Lower respiratory infections 178 8.79%


Gambia - Cause of Death in Age : 70 + years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 10 0.5%
Homicide 0 0%
Nutritional deficiencies 31 1.56%
Protein-energy malnutrition 29 1.46%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 1 0.05%
Diarrheal diseases 88 4.43%
Road accidents 22 1.11%
Tuberculosis 117 5.89%
HIV/AIDS 11 0.55%
Drowning 6 0.3%
Malaria 19 0.96%
Fire 8 0.4%
Cancers 190 9.56%
Hepatitis 2 0.1%
Digestive diseases 59 2.97%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 127 6.39%
Liver disease 43 2.16%
Respiratory disease 106 5.33%
Kidney disease 40 2.01%
Cardiovascular disease 740 37.22%
Parkinson's disease 6 0.3%
Dementia 87 4.38%
Drug use disorders 1 0.05%
Alcohol use disorders 2 0.1%
Lower respiratory infections 243 12.22%


Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Gambia
Major Risk Factors Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unsafe water source 497 5.17%
Poor sanitation 417 4.34%
No access to handwashing facility 462 4.8%
Household air pollution 1013 10.53%
Outdoor air pollution 754 7.84%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 83 0.86%
Discontinued breastfeeding 6 0.06%
Child wasting 861 8.95%
Child stunting 103 1.07%
Low birth weight 682 7.09%
Secondhand smoke 177 1.84%
Alcohol use 261 2.71%
Drug use 45 0.47%
Diet low in fruits 321 3.34%
Diet low in vegetables 233 2.42%
Unsafe sex 868 9.02%
Low physical activity 105 1.09%
High blood sugar 376 3.91%
High cholesterol 297 3.09%
High body-mass index (obesity) 484 5.03%
High blood pressure 1041 10.82%
Smoking 349 3.63%
Iron deficiency 25 0.26%
Zinc deficiency 18 0.19%
Vitamin-A deficiency 86 0.89%
Low bone mineral density 55 0.57%


Gambia - Risk of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Discontinued breastfeeding 6 0.2%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 83 2.75%
Child stunting 103 3.42%
Low birth weight 682 22.61%
Drug use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 253 8.39%
Secondhand smoke 51 1.69%
Poor sanitation 250 8.29%
Unsafe water source 298 9.88%
Household air pollution 246 8.16%
Outdoor air pollution 182 6.03%
High body-mass index (obesity) 0 0%
High blood pressure 0 0%
High blood sugar 1 0.03%
Child wasting 861 28.55%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Gambia - Risk of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 21 14.79%
Unsafe water source 24 16.9%
Unsafe sex 7 4.93%
Iron deficiency 24 16.9%
Secondhand smoke 5 3.52%
Household air pollution 23 16.2%
Outdoor air pollution 17 11.97%
High body-mass index (obesity) 0 0%
High blood sugar 1 0.7%
High blood pressure 0 0%
Poor sanitation 20 14.08%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Gambia - Risk of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 24 1.31%
Low bone mineral density 2 0.11%
Drug use 37 2.01%
Alcohol use 109 5.93%
No access to handwashing facility 55 2.99%
Unsafe water source 60 3.26%
Poor sanitation 51 2.77%
Smoking 92 5%
Secondhand smoke 17 0.92%
Low physical activity 7 0.38%
Diet low in fruits 64 3.48%
Diet low in vegetables 43 2.34%
Unsafe sex 698 37.96%
High body-mass index (obesity) 115 6.25%
Household air pollution 132 7.18%
Outdoor air pollution 101 5.49%
High total cholesterol 49 2.66%
High blood pressure 137 7.45%
High blood sugar 46 2.5%


Gambia - Risk of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 12 0.5%
Drug use 7 0.29%
Alcohol use 116 4.87%
No access to handwashing facility 58 2.43%
Poor sanitation 44 1.85%
Unsafe sex 144 6.04%
Smoking 169 7.09%
Secondhand smoke 46 1.93%
Unsafe water source 52 2.18%
Diet low in vegetables 100 4.19%
Diet low in fruits 144 6.04%
Low physical activity 36 1.51%
Outdoor air pollution 219 9.19%
Household air pollution 292 12.25%
High body-mass index (obesity) 238 9.98%
High blood sugar 151 6.33%
High total cholesterol 134 5.62%
High blood pressure 422 17.7%


Gambia - Risk of Death in Age : 70+ years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 41 1.9%
Drug use 2 0.09%
Alcohol use 35 1.62%
Smoking 88 4.07%
Secondhand smoke 58 2.69%
Household air pollution 320 14.81%
Outdoor air pollution 236 10.93%
No access to handwashing facility 75 3.47%
Poor sanitation 53 2.45%
Unsafe water source 63 2.92%
Unsafe sex 19 0.88%
Low physical activity 62 2.87%
Diet low in vegetables 91 4.21%
Diet low in fruits 113 5.23%
High cholesterol 114 5.28%
High blood pressure 482 22.31%
High blood sugar 177 8.19%
High body-mass index (obesity) 131 6.06%


Gambia - Number of Deaths by Cancer Type
Cancer Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Liver cancer Patients : 394 | Deaths : 252 63.96%
Breast cancer Patients : 233 | Deaths : 47 20.17%
Larynx cancer Patients : 11 | Deaths : 5 45.45%
Kidney cancer Patients : 58 | Deaths : 8 13.79%
Thyroid cancer Patients : 26 | Deaths : 5 19.23%
Ovarian cancer Patients : 54 | Deaths : 13 24.07%
Stomach cancer Patients : 41 | Deaths : 37 90.24%
Uterine cancer Patients : 46 | Deaths : 10 21.74%
Bladder cancer Patients : 30 | Deaths : 10 33.33%
Cervical cancer Patients : 473 | Deaths : 69 14.59%
Prostate cancer Patients : 66 | Deaths : 26 39.39%
Testicular cancer Patients : 5 | Deaths : 1 20%
Pancreatic cancer Patients : 35 | Deaths : 20 57.14%
Esophageal cancer Patients : 16 | Deaths : 14 87.5%
Nasopharynx cancer Patients : 6 | Deaths : 1 16.67%
Colon & rectum cancer Patients : 80 | Deaths : 35 43.75%
Non-melanoma skin cancer Patients : 9 | Deaths : 3 33.33%
Lip & oral cancer Patients : 49 | Deaths : 9 18.37%
Brain & nervous system cancer Patients : 39 | Deaths : 18 46.15%
Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Patients : 39 | Deaths : 12 30.77%
Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer Patients : 6 | Deaths : 6 100%


Gambia - Number of Deaths due to Cancer - Age Wise
Age Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Under-5s 75 5.88%
5-14 year olds 30 2.35%
15-49 year olds 573 44.94%
50-69 year olds 431 33.8%
70+ year olds 166 13.02%


Source :
http://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/gd004/
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327525347307/8392086-1327528510568/WDR09_bookweb_1.pdf

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