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Zambia Health

Last Update: This Article was Last updated on | Published by : | Category : Zambia

CONTENT


Causes of death across Zambia are changing because of Population Increase, Life Expectancy rise and Living Standard.On this below article we provide graphical representation of major causes of death in Zambia.

Highlights of Zambia BMI and Diet Compositions

Comprehensive data on food supply and consumption is published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data was analyzed by The Global Graph and is published in these below Highlights, Graphs and Tables (Data Quality & definitions)

  • As per United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), average person in Zambia gets their caloric supply from :
    • Carbohydrates : 61.75%61.75%
    • Fat : 17.56%17.56%
    • Plant protein : 8.54%8.54%
    • Animal protein : 1.71%1.71%
  • 10.44% decrease in caloric supply : Currently Zambia gets 1930/kilocalories per person per day worth of caloric supply when compared to 2155/kilocalories per person per day in Year 1961
  • Cereals & Grains, Oils & Fats and Starchy Roots are three major diet compositions in Zambia
  • Maize, Wheat and Rice are three major Cereal preferences in Zambia
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vegetable intake is to range between 200-250g per day and in Zambia average intake is 70.58 grams
  • Oranges & Mandarines, Apples and Bananas are three major Fruit Types Intake in Zambia
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) typically set a guideline of 200g Fruit Intake per day and in Zambia average Fruit intake is 28.03grams
  • In Zambia, average male height is in the decreasing trend and female height is in decreasing trend
  • 23.90% of population is suffering from obesity and this trend is continously increasing from last few years
  • Average Male BMI in Zambia is in the range of normal and Average Female BMI is in range of normal (BMI = Body Mass Index - The WHO define a BMI <=18.5 as 'underweight'; 18.5 to 25 as 'normal/healthy'; 25.0 to 30.0 as 'obese')


Breakdown of the average per capita intake of cereals by specific cereal-based commodity types, measured in kilocalories per person per day. This figure measures the primary equivalent of all food products derived from a given commodity (e.g. "wheat" represents the primary equivalent of its derived products). Data refers to cereal food supply at the consumer level but does not account for consumer wastage in

Cereal Preferences in Zambia
RankCerealskcal/capita/day
1Maize999
2Wheat97
3Rice30
4Sorghum5
5Oats0

This below table shows the Diet Compositions (Average per capita dietary energy supply by commodity groups, measured in kilocalories per person per day) in Zambia

Diet Compositions in Zambia
RankTypekilocalories per person per day
1Cereals & Grains1135
2Oils & Fats266
3Starchy Roots246
4Sugar100
5Meat71
6Alcoholic Beverages32
7Fruits & Vegetables30
8Dairy & Eggs26
9Pulses17
10Other7

Major Cause of Death


HIV/AIDS was a major cause of death in Zambia with 25188 registered deaths (in year 2016) i.e. 17% of total deaths. Overall HIV/AIDS, Cardiovascular diseases and Lower respiratory infections were the highest types of death causes in Zambia.
    Major Cause of Death in Zambia
  • We see the maximum number of deaths is seen in age group 15-49 with 48747 deaths (year 2016).
  • 30.29% kids below age 5 years die because of Neonatal disorders.
  • HIV/AIDS, Diarrheal diseases and Malaria are the major cause of death in kids aged 5 - 14 years.
  • HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Cancers are the major cause of death in people aged 14 - 49 years.
  • Cardiovascular diseases, Cancers and Tuberculosis are the major cause of death in people aged over 50 years.
  • Overall, it's observed that 23% of people aging over 50 years die because of Cardiovascular diseases.
Read more about Cardiovascular diseases

Major Cause of Deaths in Zambia (and it's count) Number of Deaths in Zambia - Age wise (only due to Major diseases)

Major Risk Factors of Death


  • Three Major factors of death in Zambia are Unsafe sex, High blood pressure and Household air pollution. Every year around 6888 people die due to Unsafe sex.
  • Child wasting and Low birth weight are the major risk factor of kids death aging under 5 years.
  • Unsafe sex and Unsafe water source are the major risk factors of death of people aging between 5 to 14 years.
  • Unsafe sex, Alcohol use and Household air pollution are the death risk factors of people aging between 15 to 49 years.
  • High blood pressure, Smoking and Unsafe sex are the major death risk factors of people aging between 50 to 69 years.
  • High blood pressure is the major death risk factors for people aging more than 70 years.


Major Cause of Deaths in Zambia (and it's count)

Cancer Analysis


0.31% of Zambia population was suffering from cancer i.e. 21341 people (average of years 2011-2016). Highest number of cancer patients deaths were recorded due to Cervical cancer (Count : 1236) and Prostate cancer was also concerning with 1001 deaths in a year. In last few years it has been observed that, people suffering from Stomach cancer have 8% of survival chance.Zambia was really successful in diagnosing Kidney cancer where 90% of people were cured.Highest number of cancer patients i.e. 8169 people were of age group 50-69 year olds.In 2016, 6653 were suffering from Cervical cancer out of which 1236 people were dead. This means 18.58% death rate of people suffering from Cervical cancer. This below data represents major cancer types in Zambia and number of deaths due to particular cancer types :

    Highlights of Cancer in Zambia :
  • 0.31 % of Zambia population is suffering from cancer
  • Highest number of deaths were registered due to Cervical cancer
  • Kidney cancer was most cured cancer in Zambia
  • Cervical cancer got lowest survival rate
Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Zambia

Tables (Appendix)


Major Cause of Deaths in Zambia (and it's count)
Cause of Death Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Dementia 1222 0.83%
Cardiovascular diseases 18877 12.88%
Kidney disease 1018 0.69%
Respiratory disease 2838 1.94%
Liver disease 3085 2.1%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 4860 3.32%
Digestive disease 4005 2.73%
Hepatitis 599 0.41%
Cancers 10147 6.92%
Parkinson's disease 88 0.06%
Fire 805 0.55%
Malaria 5208 3.55%
Drowning 969 0.66%
Homicide 1500 1.02%
HIV/AIDS 25188 17.18%
Drug disorder 35 0.02%
Tuberculosis 12110 8.26%
Road incidents 2642 1.8%
Maternal deaths 1174 0.8%
Neonatal deaths 11412 7.78%
Alcohol disorder 228 0.16%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 9581 6.54%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 4860 3.32%
Nutritional deficiencies 5083 3.47%
Malaria 5208 3.55%
Diarrheal diseases 9581 6.54%
Cancers 10147 6.92%
Neonatal deaths 11412 7.78%
Tuberculosis 12110 8.26%
Lower respiratory infections 13271.6279407 9.05%
Cardiovascular diseases 18877 12.88%
HIV/AIDS 25188 17.18%


Zambia - Cause of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Homicide 93 0.25%
Lower respiratory infections 3181 8.44%
Malaria 3217 8.54%
Nutritional deficiencies 0 0%
Protein-energy malnutrition 15 0.04%
Diarrheal diseases 3014 8%
Neonatal infections 0 0%
HIV/AIDS 11412 30.29%
Congenital birth defects 189 0.5%
Tuberculosis 592 1.57%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 1328 3.52%
Measles 215 0.57%
Digestive diseases 3587 9.52%
Fire 219 0.58%
Drowning 165 0.44%
Road accidents 44 0.12%
Cancers 232 0.62%
Cardiovascular disease 414 1.1%
Homicide 26 0.07%
Hepatitis 37 0.1%
Kidney disease 154 0.41%
Liver disease 641 1.7%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 6334 16.81%
Drug use disorders 291 0.77%
Natural disasters 2279 6.05%


Zambia - Cause of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 36 0.64%
Homicide 59 1.05%
Nutritional deficiencies 197 3.5%
Protein-energy malnutrition 191 3.4%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 6 0.11%
Diarrheal diseases 542 9.64%
Road accidents 227 4.04%
Tuberculosis 176 3.13%
HIV/AIDS 2362 42.01%
Drowning 200 3.56%
Malaria 443 7.88%
Fire 67 1.19%
Cancers 300 5.34%
Hepatitis 23 0.41%
Digestive diseases 101 1.8%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 83 1.48%
Liver disease 30 0.53%
Respiratory disease 37 0.66%
Kidney disease 18 0.32%
Cardiovascular disease 82 1.46%
Lower respiratory infections 442 7.86%


Zambia - Cause of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 733 1.64%
Homicide 1242 2.78%
Nutritional deficiencies 472 1.06%
Protein-energy malnutrition 338 0.76%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 36 0.08%
Diarrheal diseases 2137 4.79%
Road accidents 1394 3.12%
Tuberculosis 5860 13.13%
HIV/AIDS 19250 43.15%
Drowning 359 0.8%
Malaria 605 1.36%
Fire 199 0.45%
Cancers 2839 6.36%
Hepatitis 302 0.68%
Digestive diseases 1231 2.76%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 1164 2.61%
Liver disease 1148 2.57%
Respiratory disease 414 0.93%
Kidney disease 311 0.7%
Cardiovascular disease 2720 6.1%
Drug disorder 29 0.07%
Alcohol disorder 99 0.22%
Parkinson's disease 1 0%
Dementia 2 0%
Lower respiratory infections 1729 3.88%


Zambia - Cause of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 377 1.42%
Homicide 88 0.33%
Nutritional deficiencies 455 1.71%
Protein-energy malnutrition 364 1.37%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 10 0.04%
Diarrheal diseases 1655 6.24%
Road accidents 495 1.87%
Tuberculosis 3292 12.4%
HIV/AIDS 2088 7.87%
Drowning 104 0.39%
Malaria 324 1.22%
Fire 151 0.57%
Cancers 3846 14.49%
Hepatitis 131 0.49%
Digestive diseases 1100 4.14%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 1467 5.53%
Liver disease 1183 4.46%
Respiratory disease 926 3.49%
Kidney disease 267 1.01%
Cardiovascular diseases 6136 23.12%
Dementia 104 0.39%
Parkinson's disease 8 0.03%
Drug disorder 3 0.01%
Alcohol disorder 79 0.3%
Lower respiratory infections 1886 7.11%


Zambia - Cause of Death in Age : 70 + years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 238 0.8%
Homicide 19 0.06%
Nutritional deficiencies 743 2.51%
Protein-energy malnutrition 618 2.09%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 17 0.06%
Diarrheal diseases 2232 7.54%
Road accidents 338 1.14%
Tuberculosis 2190 7.4%
HIV/AIDS 161 0.54%
Drowning 91 0.31%
Malaria 248 0.84%
Fire 170 0.57%
Cancers 2996 10.12%
Hepatitis 100 0.34%
Digestive diseases 1340 4.53%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 1731 5.85%
Liver disease 699 2.36%
Respiratory disease 1381 4.66%
Kidney disease 384 1.3%
Cardiovascular disease 9787 33.05%
Parkinson's disease 78 0.26%
Dementia 1116 3.77%
Drug use disorders 3 0.01%
Alcohol use disorders 50 0.17%
Lower respiratory infections 2881 9.73%


Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Zambia
Major Risk Factors Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unsafe water source 6888 5.7%
Poor sanitation 5775 4.78%
No access to handwashing facility 5918 4.9%
Household air pollution 10675 8.83%
Outdoor air pollution 5713 4.73%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 985 0.81%
Discontinued breastfeeding 42 0.03%
Child wasting 8992 7.44%
Child stunting 1550 1.28%
Low birth weight 4167 3.45%
Secondhand smoke 880 0.73%
Alcohol use 7953 6.58%
Drug use 432 0.36%
Diet low in fruits 3537 2.93%
Diet low in vegetables 2423 2%
Unsafe sex 22129 18.31%
Low physical activity 1099 0.91%
High blood sugar 6453 5.34%
High cholesterol 2854 2.36%
High body-mass index (obesity) 2807 2.32%
High blood pressure 11069 9.16%
Smoking 7087 5.86%
Iron deficiency 66 0.05%
Zinc deficiency 169 0.14%
Vitamin-A deficiency 381 0.32%
Low bone mineral density 833 0.69%


Zambia - Risk of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Discontinued breastfeeding 42 0.16%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 985 3.7%
Child stunting 1550 5.82%
Low birth weight 4167 15.65%
Drug use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 2162 8.12%
Secondhand smoke 303 1.14%
Poor sanitation 1817 6.82%
Unsafe water source 2171 8.15%
Household air pollution 2964 11.13%
Outdoor air pollution 1466 5.5%
High body-mass index (obesity) 10 0.04%
High blood pressure 1 0%
High blood sugar 3 0.01%
Child wasting 8992 33.76%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Zambia - Risk of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use 2 0.1%
No access to handwashing facility 292 14.65%
Unsafe water source 389 19.52%
Unsafe sex 570 28.6%
Iron deficiency 64 3.21%
Secondhand smoke 23 1.15%
Household air pollution 212 10.64%
Outdoor air pollution 102 5.12%
High body-mass index (obesity) 3 0.15%
High blood sugar 7 0.35%
High blood pressure 1 0.05%
Poor sanitation 327 16.41%
Iron deficiency 1 0.05%


Zambia - Risk of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 64 0.18%
Low bone mineral density 34 0.09%
Drug use 352 0.98%
Alcohol use 4063 11.27%
No access to handwashing facility 1148 3.18%
Unsafe water source 1533 4.25%
Poor sanitation 1288 3.57%
Smoking 1517 4.21%
Secondhand smoke 118 0.33%
Low physical activity 95 0.26%
Diet low in fruits 738 2.05%
Diet low in vegetables 505 1.4%
Unsafe sex 18523 51.37%
High body-mass index (obesity) 801 2.22%
Household air pollution 1538 4.27%
Outdoor air pollution 859 2.38%
High total cholesterol 603 1.67%
High blood pressure 1349 3.74%
High blood sugar 930 2.58%


Zambia - Risk of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 1 0%
Low bone mineral density 162 0.6%
Drug use 69 0.26%
Alcohol use 2621 9.7%
No access to handwashing facility 966 3.58%
Poor sanitation 998 3.69%
Unsafe sex 2628 9.73%
Smoking 2839 10.51%
Secondhand smoke 186 0.69%
Unsafe water source 1190 4.41%
Diet low in vegetables 935 3.46%
Diet low in fruits 1450 5.37%
Low physical activity 337 1.25%
Outdoor air pollution 1449 5.36%
Household air pollution 2582 9.56%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1190 4.41%
High blood sugar 2383 8.82%
High total cholesterol 1059 3.92%
High blood pressure 3968 14.69%


Zambia - Risk of Death in Age : 70+ years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 637 2.22%
Drug use 11 0.04%
Alcohol use 1268 4.42%
Smoking 2731 9.52%
Secondhand smoke 252 0.88%
Household air pollution 3378 11.77%
Outdoor air pollution 1838 6.4%
No access to handwashing facility 1350 4.7%
Poor sanitation 1345 4.69%
Unsafe water source 1606 5.6%
Unsafe sex 408 1.42%
Low physical activity 666 2.32%
Diet low in vegetables 983 3.43%
Diet low in fruits 1350 4.7%
High cholesterol 1192 4.15%
High blood pressure 5749 20.03%
High blood sugar 3130 10.91%
High body-mass index (obesity) 804 2.8%


Zambia - Number of Deaths by Cancer Type
Cancer Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Liver cancer Patients : 636 | Deaths : 209 32.86%
Breast cancer Patients : 2461 | Deaths : 508 20.64%
Larynx cancer Patients : 306 | Deaths : 127 41.5%
Kidney cancer Patients : 964 | Deaths : 97 10.06%
Thyroid cancer Patients : 715 | Deaths : 123 17.2%
Ovarian cancer Patients : 932 | Deaths : 286 30.69%
Stomach cancer Patients : 591 | Deaths : 542 91.71%
Uterine cancer Patients : 752 | Deaths : 172 22.87%
Bladder cancer Patients : 580 | Deaths : 179 30.86%
Cervical cancer Patients : 6653 | Deaths : 1236 18.58%
Prostate cancer Patients : 3048 | Deaths : 1001 32.84%
Testicular cancer Patients : 78 | Deaths : 19 24.36%
Pancreatic cancer Patients : 303 | Deaths : 172 56.77%
Esophageal cancer Patients : 460 | Deaths : 343 74.57%
Nasopharynx cancer Patients : 415 | Deaths : 105 25.3%
Colon & rectum cancer Patients : 1450 | Deaths : 734 50.62%
Non-melanoma skin cancer Patients : 76 | Deaths : 60 78.95%
Lip & oral cancer Patients : 1017 | Deaths : 192 18.88%
Brain & nervous system cancer Patients : 532 | Deaths : 264 49.62%
Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Patients : 322 | Deaths : 74 22.98%
Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer Patients : 107 | Deaths : 41 38.32%


Zambia - Number of Deaths due to Cancer - Age Wise
Age Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Under-5s 927 4.34%
5-14 year olds 743 3.48%
15-49 year olds 7376 34.56%
50-69 year olds 8169 38.28%
70+ year olds 4126 19.33%


Source :
http://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/gd004/
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327525347307/8392086-1327528510568/WDR09_bookweb_1.pdf

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