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Sierra Leone Health

Last Update: This Article was Last updated on | Published by : | Category : Sierra Leone

CONTENT


Causes of death across Sierra Leone are changing because of Population Increase, Life Expectancy rise and Living Standard.On this below article we provide graphical representation of major causes of death in Sierra Leone.

Highlights of Sierra Leone BMI and Diet Compositions

Comprehensive data on food supply and consumption is published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data was analyzed by The Global Graph and is published in these below Highlights, Graphs and Tables (Data Quality & definitions)

  • As per United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), average person in Sierra Leone gets their caloric supply from :
    • Carbohydrates : 90.85%90.85%
    • Fat : 29.16%29.16%
    • Plant protein : 9.09%9.09%
    • Animal protein : 3.28%3.28%
  • 32.38% increase in caloric supply : Currently Sierra Leone gets 2404/kilocalories per person per day worth of caloric supply when compared to 1816/kilocalories per person per day in Year 1961
  • Cereals & Grains, Oils & Fats and Starchy Roots are three major diet compositions in Sierra Leone
  • Rice, Wheat and Maize are three major Cereal preferences in Sierra Leone
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vegetable intake is to range between 200-250g per day and in Sierra Leone average intake is 155.84 grams
  • Citrus, other, Plantains and Oranges & Mandarines are three major Fruit Types Intake in Sierra Leone
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) typically set a guideline of 200g Fruit Intake per day and in Sierra Leone average Fruit intake is 103.89grams
  • In Sierra Leone, average male height is in the decreasing trend and female height is in decreasing trend
  • 24.90% of population is suffering from obesity and this trend is continously increasing from last few years
  • Average Male BMI in Sierra Leone is in the range of normal and Average Female BMI is in range of normal (BMI = Body Mass Index - The WHO define a BMI <=18.5 as 'underweight'; 18.5 to 25 as 'normal/healthy'; 25.0 to 30.0 as 'obese')


Breakdown of the average per capita intake of cereals by specific cereal-based commodity types, measured in kilocalories per person per day. This figure measures the primary equivalent of all food products derived from a given commodity (e.g. "wheat" represents the primary equivalent of its derived products). Data refers to cereal food supply at the consumer level but does not account for consumer wastage in

Cereal Preferences in Sierra Leone
RankCerealskcal/capita/day
1Rice957
2Wheat75
3Maize40
4Sorghum24
5Oats0

This below table shows the Diet Compositions (Average per capita dietary energy supply by commodity groups, measured in kilocalories per person per day) in Sierra Leone

Diet Compositions in Sierra Leone
RankTypekilocalories per person per day
1Cereals & Grains1154
2Oils & Fats444
3Starchy Roots375
4Pulses105
5Meat99
6Fruits & Vegetables82
7Sugar57
8Alcoholic Beverages50
9Other20
10Dairy & Eggs18

Major Cause of Death


Malaria was a major cause of death in Sierra Leone with 9065 registered deaths (in year 2016) i.e. 16% of total deaths. Overall Malaria, Cardiovascular diseases and Lower respiratory infections were the highest types of death causes in Sierra Leone.
    Major Cause of Death in Sierra Leone
  • We see the maximum number of deaths is seen in age group Under-5 with 27472 deaths (year 2016).
  • 25.83% kids below age 5 years die because of Malaria.
  • Malaria, Diarrheal diseases and Lower respiratory infections are the major cause of death in kids aged 5 - 14 years.
  • HIV/AIDS, Cardiovascular disease and Tuberculosis are the major cause of death in people aged 14 - 49 years.
  • Cardiovascular diseases, Cancers and Lower respiratory infections are the major cause of death in people aged over 50 years.
  • Overall, it's observed that 29% of people aging over 50 years die because of Cardiovascular diseases.
Read more about Cardiovascular diseases

Major Cause of Deaths in Sierra Leone (and it's count) Number of Deaths in Sierra Leone - Age wise (only due to Major diseases)

Major Risk Factors of Death


  • Three Major factors of death in Sierra Leone are Child wasting, Household air pollution and Unsafe water source. Every year around 4799 people die due to Child wasting.
  • Child wasting and Unsafe water source are the major risk factor of kids death aging under 5 years.
  • Unsafe water source and Poor sanitation are the major risk factors of death of people aging between 5 to 14 years.
  • Unsafe sex, Alcohol use and High blood pressure are the death risk factors of people aging between 15 to 49 years.
  • High blood pressure, Household air pollution and Alcohol use are the major death risk factors of people aging between 50 to 69 years.
  • High blood pressure is the major death risk factors for people aging more than 70 years.


Major Cause of Deaths in Sierra Leone (and it's count)

Cancer Analysis


0.21% of Sierra Leone population was suffering from cancer i.e. 6204 people (average of years 2011-2016). Highest number of cancer patients deaths were recorded due to Stomach cancer (Count : 359) and Cervical cancer was also concerning with 357 deaths in a year. In last few years it has been observed that, people suffering from Esophageal cancer have 11% of survival chance.Sierra Leone was really successful in diagnosing Kidney cancer where 90% of people were cured.Highest number of cancer patients i.e. 2645 people were of age group 50-69 year olds.In 2016, 432 were suffering from Stomach cancer out of which 359 people were dead. This means 83.1% death rate of people suffering from Stomach cancer. This below data represents major cancer types in Sierra Leone and number of deaths due to particular cancer types :

    Highlights of Cancer in Sierra Leone :
  • 0.21 % of Sierra Leone population is suffering from cancer
  • Highest number of deaths were registered due to Stomach cancer
  • Kidney cancer was most cured cancer in Sierra Leone
  • Stomach cancer got lowest survival rate
Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Sierra Leone

Tables (Appendix)


Major Cause of Deaths in Sierra Leone (and it's count)
Cause of Death Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Dementia 246 0.43%
Cardiovascular diseases 7144 12.37%
Kidney disease 592 1.03%
Respiratory disease 1049 1.82%
Liver disease 1101 1.91%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 2482 4.3%
Digestive disease 1080 1.87%
Hepatitis 249 0.43%
Cancers 3427 5.94%
Parkinson's disease 20 0.03%
Fire 221 0.38%
Malaria 9065 15.7%
Drowning 366 0.63%
Homicide 104 0.18%
HIV/AIDS 2361 4.09%
Drug disorder 52 0.09%
Tuberculosis 2287 3.96%
Road incidents 893 1.55%
Maternal deaths 1275 2.21%
Neonatal deaths 6152 10.66%
Alcohol disorder 50 0.09%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Diarrheal diseases 6310 10.93%
Meningitis 1980.46106891 3.43%
Tuberculosis 2287 3.96%
HIV/AIDS 2361 4.09%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 2482 4.3%
Cancers 3427 5.94%
Neonatal deaths 6152 10.66%
Diarrheal diseases 6310 10.93%
Lower respiratory infections 6372.74913799 11.04%
Cardiovascular diseases 7144 12.37%
Malaria 9065 15.7%


Sierra Leone - Cause of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Homicide 9 0.03%
Neonatal disorders 886 3.29%
Diarrheal diseases 903 3.35%
Lower respiratory infections 0 0%
Congenital birth defects 19 0.07%
Neonatal infections 3761 13.96%
Nutritional deficiencies 0 0%
Protein-energy malnutrition 6152 22.84%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 115 0.43%
Cardiovascular disease 111 0.41%
Digestive diseases 52 0.19%
Road accidents 107 0.4%
Tuberculosis 6956 25.83%
Drowning 73 0.27%
Fire 54 0.2%
Kidney disease 30 0.11%
Cancers 136 0.5%
HIV/AIDS 329 1.22%
Hepatitis 20 0.07%
Liver disease 62 0.23%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 157 0.58%
Measles 2325 8.63%
Homicide 3640 13.51%
Drug use disorders 18 0.07%
Natural disasters 1020 3.79%


Sierra Leone - Cause of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 6 0.27%
Homicide 5 0.23%
Nutritional deficiencies 45 2.04%
Protein-energy malnutrition 43 1.95%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 6 0.27%
Diarrheal diseases 269 12.18%
Road accidents 96 4.35%
Tuberculosis 36 1.63%
HIV/AIDS 146 6.61%
Drowning 80 3.62%
Malaria 807 36.53%
Fire 23 1.04%
Cancers 65 2.94%
Hepatitis 21 0.95%
Digestive diseases 37 1.67%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 205 9.28%
Liver disease 16 0.72%
Respiratory disease 18 0.81%
Kidney disease 27 1.22%
Cardiovascular disease 48 2.17%
Lower respiratory infections 210 9.51%


Sierra Leone - Cause of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 186 1.78%
Homicide 83 0.79%
Nutritional deficiencies 78 0.75%
Protein-energy malnutrition 65 0.62%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 40 0.38%
Diarrheal diseases 872 8.33%
Road accidents 439 4.2%
Tuberculosis 998 9.54%
HIV/AIDS 1882 17.99%
Drowning 116 1.11%
Malaria 636 6.08%
Fire 56 0.54%
Cancers 917 8.76%
Hepatitis 146 1.4%
Digestive diseases 336 3.21%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 782 7.47%
Liver disease 437 4.18%
Respiratory disease 220 2.1%
Kidney disease 191 1.83%
Cardiovascular disease 1259 12.03%
Drug disorder 40 0.38%
Alcohol disorder 26 0.25%
Parkinson's disease 0 0%
Dementia 1 0.01%
Lower respiratory infections 658 6.29%


Sierra Leone - Cause of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 102 0.97%
Homicide 6 0.06%
Nutritional deficiencies 65 0.62%
Protein-energy malnutrition 54 0.51%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 12 0.11%
Diarrheal diseases 767 7.26%
Road accidents 171 1.62%
Tuberculosis 735 6.96%
HIV/AIDS 263 2.49%
Drowning 41 0.39%
Malaria 403 3.81%
Fire 42 0.4%
Cancers 1617 15.31%
Hepatitis 43 0.41%
Digestive diseases 346 3.27%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 672 6.36%
Liver disease 473 4.48%
Respiratory disease 431 4.08%
Kidney disease 181 1.71%
Cardiovascular diseases 3113 29.47%
Dementia 44 0.42%
Parkinson's disease 4 0.04%
Drug disorder 8 0.08%
Alcohol disorder 19 0.18%
Lower respiratory infections 953 9.02%


Sierra Leone - Cause of Death in Age : 70 + years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 39 0.52%
Homicide 1 0.01%
Nutritional deficiencies 56 0.75%
Protein-energy malnutrition 52 0.7%
Natural disasters 0 0%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 6 0.08%
Diarrheal diseases 640 8.58%
Road accidents 72 0.97%
Tuberculosis 408 5.47%
HIV/AIDS 18 0.24%
Drowning 21 0.28%
Malaria 263 3.53%
Fire 28 0.38%
Cancers 774 10.38%
Hepatitis 9 0.12%
Digestive diseases 225 3.02%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 494 6.62%
Liver disease 155 2.08%
Respiratory disease 360 4.83%
Kidney disease 132 1.77%
Cardiovascular disease 2567 34.42%
Parkinson's disease 16 0.21%
Dementia 201 2.7%
Drug use disorders 4 0.05%
Alcohol use disorders 6 0.08%
Lower respiratory infections 911 12.22%


Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Sierra Leone
Major Risk Factors Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unsafe water source 4799 8.82%
Poor sanitation 4068 7.48%
No access to handwashing facility 3673 6.75%
Household air pollution 5526 10.16%
Outdoor air pollution 3049 5.6%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 1104 2.03%
Discontinued breastfeeding 78 0.14%
Child wasting 5996 11.02%
Child stunting 1112 2.04%
Low birth weight 2689 4.94%
Secondhand smoke 616 1.13%
Alcohol use 3091 5.68%
Drug use 110 0.2%
Diet low in fruits 1373 2.52%
Diet low in vegetables 965 1.77%
Unsafe sex 2493 4.58%
Low physical activity 465 0.85%
High blood sugar 1882 3.46%
High cholesterol 1359 2.5%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1895 3.48%
High blood pressure 4766 8.76%
Smoking 2565 4.71%
Iron deficiency 134 0.25%
Zinc deficiency 219 0.4%
Vitamin-A deficiency 216 0.4%
Low bone mineral density 158 0.29%


Sierra Leone - Risk of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Discontinued breastfeeding 78 0.36%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 1104 5.12%
Child stunting 1112 5.16%
Low birth weight 2689 12.47%
Drug use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 2166 10.05%
Secondhand smoke 240 1.11%
Poor sanitation 2424 11.24%
Unsafe water source 2862 13.28%
Household air pollution 1880 8.72%
Outdoor air pollution 996 4.62%
High body-mass index (obesity) 2 0.01%
High blood pressure 1 0%
High blood sugar 7 0.03%
Child wasting 5996 27.81%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Sierra Leone - Risk of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use 1 0.11%
No access to handwashing facility 148 16.65%
Unsafe water source 205 23.06%
Unsafe sex 37 4.16%
Iron deficiency 133 14.96%
Secondhand smoke 14 1.57%
Household air pollution 111 12.49%
Outdoor air pollution 57 6.41%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1 0.11%
High blood sugar 7 0.79%
High blood pressure 1 0.11%
Poor sanitation 174 19.57%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Sierra Leone - Risk of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 133 1.41%
Low bone mineral density 9 0.1%
Drug use 89 0.94%
Alcohol use 1156 12.26%
No access to handwashing facility 475 5.04%
Unsafe water source 662 7.02%
Poor sanitation 562 5.96%
Smoking 703 7.45%
Secondhand smoke 61 0.65%
Low physical activity 45 0.48%
Diet low in fruits 348 3.69%
Diet low in vegetables 225 2.39%
Unsafe sex 1950 20.68%
High body-mass index (obesity) 429 4.55%
Household air pollution 768 8.14%
Outdoor air pollution 442 4.69%
High total cholesterol 285 3.02%
High blood pressure 801 8.49%
High blood sugar 288 3.05%


Sierra Leone - Risk of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 53 0.39%
Drug use 16 0.12%
Alcohol use 1349 9.91%
No access to handwashing facility 473 3.47%
Poor sanitation 495 3.63%
Unsafe sex 451 3.31%
Smoking 1310 9.62%
Secondhand smoke 156 1.15%
Unsafe water source 583 4.28%
Diet low in vegetables 459 3.37%
Diet low in fruits 671 4.93%
Low physical activity 203 1.49%
Outdoor air pollution 895 6.57%
Household air pollution 1579 11.59%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1055 7.75%
High blood sugar 890 6.54%
High total cholesterol 689 5.06%
High blood pressure 2291 16.82%


Sierra Leone - Risk of Death in Age : 70+ years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 96 1.12%
Drug use 5 0.06%
Alcohol use 586 6.81%
Smoking 552 6.41%
Secondhand smoke 145 1.68%
Household air pollution 1189 13.82%
Outdoor air pollution 659 7.66%
No access to handwashing facility 411 4.78%
Poor sanitation 413 4.8%
Unsafe water source 487 5.66%
Unsafe sex 56 0.65%
Low physical activity 218 2.53%
Diet low in vegetables 280 3.25%
Diet low in fruits 354 4.11%
High cholesterol 385 4.47%
High blood pressure 1672 19.43%
High blood sugar 689 8.01%
High body-mass index (obesity) 409 4.75%


Sierra Leone - Number of Deaths by Cancer Type
Cancer Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Liver cancer Patients : 545 | Deaths : 279 51.19%
Breast cancer Patients : 1489 | Deaths : 300 20.15%
Larynx cancer Patients : 88 | Deaths : 35 39.77%
Kidney cancer Patients : 311 | Deaths : 32 10.29%
Thyroid cancer Patients : 57 | Deaths : 11 19.3%
Ovarian cancer Patients : 202 | Deaths : 55 27.23%
Stomach cancer Patients : 432 | Deaths : 359 83.1%
Uterine cancer Patients : 202 | Deaths : 50 24.75%
Bladder cancer Patients : 212 | Deaths : 63 29.72%
Cervical cancer Patients : 2226 | Deaths : 357 16.04%
Prostate cancer Patients : 612 | Deaths : 216 35.29%
Testicular cancer Patients : 23 | Deaths : 6 26.09%
Pancreatic cancer Patients : 134 | Deaths : 81 60.45%
Esophageal cancer Patients : 126 | Deaths : 112 88.89%
Nasopharynx cancer Patients : 37 | Deaths : 8 21.62%
Colon & rectum cancer Patients : 463 | Deaths : 197 42.55%
Non-melanoma skin cancer Patients : 31 | Deaths : 10 32.26%
Lip & oral cancer Patients : 196 | Deaths : 37 18.88%
Brain & nervous system cancer Patients : 210 | Deaths : 88 41.9%
Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Patients : 210 | Deaths : 51 24.29%
Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer Patients : 31 | Deaths : 23 74.19%


Sierra Leone - Number of Deaths due to Cancer - Age Wise
Age Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Under-5s 336 5.42%
5-14 year olds 95 1.53%
15-49 year olds 2200 35.46%
50-69 year olds 2645 42.63%
70+ year olds 928 14.96%


Source :
http://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/gd004/
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327525347307/8392086-1327528510568/WDR09_bookweb_1.pdf

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