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Rwanda Health

Last Update: This Article was Last updated on | Published by : | Category : Rwanda

CONTENT


Causes of death across Rwanda are changing because of Population Increase, Life Expectancy rise and Living Standard.On this below article we provide graphical representation of major causes of death in Rwanda.

Highlights of Rwanda BMI and Diet Compositions

Comprehensive data on food supply and consumption is published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Data was analyzed by The Global Graph and is published in these below Highlights, Graphs and Tables (Data Quality & definitions)

  • As per United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), average person in Rwanda gets their caloric supply from :
    • Carbohydrates : 99.82%99.82%
    • Fat : 11.95%11.95%
    • Plant protein : 11.45%11.45%
    • Animal protein : 1.25%1.25%
  • 24.47% increase in caloric supply : Currently Rwanda gets 2228/kilocalories per person per day worth of caloric supply when compared to 1790/kilocalories per person per day in Year 1961
  • Starchy Roots, Fruits & Vegetables and Cereals & Grains are three major diet compositions in Rwanda
  • Maize, Sorghum and Wheat are three major Cereal preferences in Rwanda
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on vegetable intake is to range between 200-250g per day and in Rwanda average intake is 152.58 grams
  • Bananas, Pineapples and Lemons & Limes are three major Fruit Types Intake in Rwanda
  • National and World Health Organization (WHO) typically set a guideline of 200g Fruit Intake per day and in Rwanda average Fruit intake is 856.11grams
  • In Rwanda, average male height is in the decreasing trend and female height is in decreasing trend
  • 22.00% of population is suffering from obesity and this trend is continously increasing from last few years
  • Average Male BMI in Rwanda is in the range of normal and Average Female BMI is in range of normal (BMI = Body Mass Index - The WHO define a BMI <=18.5 as 'underweight'; 18.5 to 25 as 'normal/healthy'; 25.0 to 30.0 as 'obese')


Breakdown of the average per capita intake of cereals by specific cereal-based commodity types, measured in kilocalories per person per day. This figure measures the primary equivalent of all food products derived from a given commodity (e.g. "wheat" represents the primary equivalent of its derived products). Data refers to cereal food supply at the consumer level but does not account for consumer wastage in

Cereal Preferences in Rwanda
RankCerealskcal/capita/day
1Maize125
2Sorghum88
3Wheat85
4Rice83
5Oats0

This below table shows the Diet Compositions (Average per capita dietary energy supply by commodity groups, measured in kilocalories per person per day) in Rwanda

Diet Compositions in Rwanda
RankTypekilocalories per person per day
1Starchy Roots724
2Fruits & Vegetables551
3Cereals & Grains387
4Pulses334
5Oils & Fats90
6Sugar51
7Meat41
8Alcoholic Beverages29
9Dairy & Eggs13
10Other8

Major Cause of Death


Cardiovascular diseases was a major cause of death in Rwanda with 9401 registered deaths (in year 2016) i.e. 14% of total deaths. Overall Cardiovascular diseases, Lower respiratory infections and Cancers were the highest types of death causes in Rwanda.
    Major Cause of Death in Rwanda
  • We see the maximum number of deaths is seen in age group Under-5 with 19487 deaths (year 2016).
  • 32.08% kids below age 5 years die because of Neonatal disorders.
  • Lower respiratory infections, Diarrheal diseases and Malaria are the major cause of death in kids aged 5 - 14 years.
  • HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Cancers are the major cause of death in people aged 14 - 49 years.
  • Cardiovascular diseases, Cancers and Tuberculosis are the major cause of death in people aged over 50 years.
  • Overall, it's observed that 22% of people aging over 50 years die because of Cardiovascular diseases.
Read more about Cardiovascular diseases

Major Cause of Deaths in Rwanda (and it's count) Number of Deaths in Rwanda - Age wise (only due to Major diseases)

Major Risk Factors of Death


  • Three Major factors of death in Rwanda are Household air pollution, High blood pressure and Alcohol use. Every year around 3134 people die due to Household air pollution.
  • Child wasting and Low birth weight are the major risk factor of kids death aging under 5 years.
  • Unsafe water source and Poor sanitation are the major risk factors of death of people aging between 5 to 14 years.
  • Unsafe sex, Alcohol use and Household air pollution are the death risk factors of people aging between 15 to 49 years.
  • High blood pressure, Alcohol use and Household air pollution are the major death risk factors of people aging between 50 to 69 years.
  • High blood pressure is the major death risk factors for people aging more than 70 years.


Major Cause of Deaths in Rwanda (and it's count)

Cancer Analysis


0.26% of Rwanda population was suffering from cancer i.e. 14227 people (average of years 2011-2016). Highest number of cancer patients deaths were recorded due to Cervical cancer (Count : 775) and Prostate cancer was also concerning with 637 deaths in a year. In last few years it has been observed that, people suffering from Non-melanoma skin cancer have 9% of survival chance.Rwanda was really successful in diagnosing Kidney cancer where 90% of people were cured.Highest number of cancer patients i.e. 6307 people were of age group 50-69 year olds.In 2016, 4393 were suffering from Cervical cancer out of which 775 people were dead. This means 17.64% death rate of people suffering from Cervical cancer. This below data represents major cancer types in Rwanda and number of deaths due to particular cancer types :

    Highlights of Cancer in Rwanda :
  • 0.26 % of Rwanda population is suffering from cancer
  • Highest number of deaths were registered due to Cervical cancer
  • Kidney cancer was most cured cancer in Rwanda
  • Cervical cancer got lowest survival rate
Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Rwanda

Tables (Appendix)


Major Cause of Deaths in Rwanda (and it's count)
Cause of Death Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Dementia 1004 1.53%
Cardiovascular diseases 9401 14.28%
Kidney disease 455 0.69%
Respiratory disease 1778 2.7%
Liver disease 1331 2.02%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 2600 3.95%
Digestive disease 1910 2.9%
Hepatitis 288 0.44%
Cancers 6444 9.79%
Parkinson's disease 61 0.09%
Fire 448 0.68%
Malaria 2467 3.75%
Drowning 498 0.76%
Homicide 496 0.75%
HIV/AIDS 3198 4.86%
Drug disorder 26 0.04%
Tuberculosis 4741 7.2%
Road incidents 1788 2.72%
Maternal deaths 932 1.42%
Neonatal deaths 6278 9.54%
Alcohol disorder 113 0.17%
Natural disasters 51 0.08%
Diarrheal diseases 4475 6.8%
Malaria 2467 3.75%
Nutritional deficiencies 2598 3.95%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 2600 3.95%
HIV/AIDS 3198 4.86%
Diarrheal diseases 4475 6.8%
Tuberculosis 4741 7.2%
Neonatal deaths 6278 9.54%
Cancers 6444 9.79%
Lower respiratory infections 7194.34457388 10.93%
Cardiovascular diseases 9401 14.28%


Rwanda - Cause of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Homicide 40 0.2%
Lower respiratory infections 1670 8.53%
Nutritional deficiencies 1694 8.66%
Protein-energy malnutrition 6 0.03%
Diarrheal diseases 6 0.03%
Malaria 1562 7.98%
Neonatal infections 0 0%
Congenital birth defects 6278 32.08%
Tuberculosis 148 0.76%
Diabetes, blood and endocrine disease 268 1.37%
Road accidents 57 0.29%
Digestive diseases 121 0.62%
Fire 1452 7.42%
Drowning 133 0.68%
Cancers 106 0.54%
Cardiovascular disease 24 0.12%
HIV/AIDS 137 0.7%
Measles 224 1.14%
Homicide 13 0.07%
Hepatitis 17 0.09%
Kidney disease 86 0.44%
Liver disease 584 2.98%
Natural disasters 3579 18.29%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 51 0.26%
Drug use disorders 1311 6.7%


Rwanda - Cause of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 22 1.07%
Homicide 23 1.12%
Nutritional deficiencies 115 5.58%
Protein-energy malnutrition 111 5.39%
Natural disasters 11 0.53%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 2 0.1%
Diarrheal diseases 249 12.08%
Road accidents 176 8.54%
Tuberculosis 88 4.27%
HIV/AIDS 232 11.26%
Drowning 112 5.43%
Malaria 233 11.31%
Fire 39 1.89%
Cancers 185 8.98%
Hepatitis 12 0.58%
Digestive diseases 54 2.62%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 40 1.94%
Liver disease 15 0.73%
Respiratory disease 25 1.21%
Kidney disease 9 0.44%
Cardiovascular disease 46 2.23%
Lower respiratory infections 262 12.71%


Rwanda - Cause of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 342 2.6%
Homicide 395 3.01%
Nutritional deficiencies 186 1.42%
Protein-energy malnutrition 130 0.99%
Natural disasters 25 0.19%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 10 0.08%
Diarrheal diseases 844 6.43%
Road accidents 853 6.49%
Tuberculosis 2121 16.15%
HIV/AIDS 2326 17.71%
Drowning 161 1.23%
Malaria 434 3.3%
Fire 92 0.7%
Cancers 1592 12.12%
Hepatitis 125 0.95%
Digestive diseases 480 3.65%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 448 3.41%
Liver disease 420 3.2%
Respiratory disease 207 1.58%
Kidney disease 107 0.81%
Cardiovascular disease 1008 7.67%
Drug disorder 20 0.15%
Alcohol disorder 44 0.33%
Parkinson's disease 1 0.01%
Dementia 2 0.02%
Lower respiratory infections 762 5.8%


Rwanda - Cause of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 215 1.49%
Homicide 33 0.23%
Nutritional deficiencies 219 1.52%
Protein-energy malnutrition 172 1.19%
Natural disasters 6 0.04%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 4 0.03%
Diarrheal diseases 852 5.91%
Road accidents 387 2.68%
Tuberculosis 1468 10.18%
HIV/AIDS 557 3.86%
Drowning 59 0.41%
Malaria 225 1.56%
Fire 92 0.64%
Cancers 2848 19.75%
Hepatitis 82 0.57%
Digestive diseases 575 3.99%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 886 6.15%
Liver disease 576 4%
Respiratory disease 614 4.26%
Kidney disease 134 0.93%
Cardiovascular diseases 3190 22.13%
Dementia 84 0.58%
Parkinson's disease 6 0.04%
Drug disorder 3 0.02%
Alcohol disorder 45 0.31%
Lower respiratory infections 1085 7.53%


Rwanda - Cause of Death in Age : 70 + years
Cause Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Suicide 119 0.77%
Homicide 5 0.03%
Nutritional deficiencies 383 2.48%
Protein-energy malnutrition 314 2.03%
Natural disasters 2 0.01%
Heat-related deaths (hot or cold exposure) 6 0.04%
Diarrheal diseases 968 6.26%
Road accidents 224 1.45%
Tuberculosis 796 5.14%
HIV/AIDS 27 0.17%
Drowning 45 0.29%
Malaria 123 0.79%
Fire 92 0.59%
Cancers 1712 11.06%
Hepatitis 46 0.3%
Digestive diseases 664 4.29%
Diabetes, blood, and endocrine diseases 1003 6.48%
Liver disease 307 1.98%
Respiratory disease 871 5.63%
Kidney disease 188 1.22%
Cardiovascular disease 5071 32.77%
Parkinson's disease 54 0.35%
Dementia 918 5.93%
Drug use disorders 3 0.02%
Alcohol use disorders 25 0.16%
Lower respiratory infections 1507 9.74%


Major Risk Factors of Death (count) in Rwanda
Major Risk Factors Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unsafe water source 3134 6.16%
Poor sanitation 2849 5.6%
No access to handwashing facility 3119 6.13%
Household air pollution 6118 12.03%
Outdoor air pollution 3765 7.4%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 245 0.48%
Discontinued breastfeeding 21 0.04%
Child wasting 4314 8.48%
Child stunting 705 1.39%
Low birth weight 2216 4.36%
Secondhand smoke 456 0.9%
Alcohol use 4942 9.72%
Drug use 115 0.23%
Diet low in fruits 318 0.63%
Diet low in vegetables 950 1.87%
Unsafe sex 3600 7.08%
Low physical activity 386 0.76%
High blood sugar 3493 6.87%
High cholesterol 716 1.41%
High body-mass index (obesity) 1643 3.23%
High blood pressure 5396 10.61%
Smoking 1661 3.27%
Iron deficiency 66 0.13%
Zinc deficiency 131 0.26%
Vitamin-A deficiency 12 0.02%
Low bone mineral density 481 0.95%


Rwanda - Risk of Death in Age : Under 5 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Discontinued breastfeeding 21 0.15%
Non-exclusive breastfeeding 245 1.75%
Child stunting 705 5.04%
Low birth weight 2216 15.84%
Drug use 0 0%
No access to handwashing facility 1254 8.96%
Secondhand smoke 185 1.32%
Poor sanitation 994 7.11%
Unsafe water source 1094 7.82%
Household air pollution 1830 13.08%
Outdoor air pollution 1125 8.04%
High body-mass index (obesity) 5 0.04%
High blood pressure 0 0%
High blood sugar 1 0.01%
Child wasting 4314 30.84%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Rwanda - Risk of Death in Age : 5 - 14 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Drug use 0 0%
Alcohol use 1 0.12%
No access to handwashing facility 152 17.76%
Unsafe water source 174 20.33%
Unsafe sex 64 7.48%
Iron deficiency 64 7.48%
Secondhand smoke 15 1.75%
Household air pollution 137 16%
Outdoor air pollution 82 9.58%
High body-mass index (obesity) 2 0.23%
High blood sugar 5 0.58%
High blood pressure 1 0.12%
Poor sanitation 159 18.57%
Iron deficiency 0 0%


Rwanda - Risk of Death in Age : 15 - 49 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 64 0.7%
Low bone mineral density 15 0.16%
Drug use 85 0.93%
Alcohol use 2063 22.64%
No access to handwashing facility 496 5.44%
Unsafe water source 590 6.47%
Poor sanitation 537 5.89%
Smoking 345 3.79%
Secondhand smoke 47 0.52%
Low physical activity 20 0.22%
Diet low in fruits 78 0.86%
Diet low in vegetables 142 1.56%
Unsafe sex 2390 26.23%
High body-mass index (obesity) 258 2.83%
Household air pollution 662 7.27%
Outdoor air pollution 415 4.55%
High total cholesterol 96 1.05%
High blood pressure 487 5.34%
High blood sugar 322 3.53%


Rwanda - Risk of Death in Age : 50 - 69 years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 1 0.01%
Low bone mineral density 98 0.74%
Drug use 25 0.19%
Alcohol use 1943 14.68%
No access to handwashing facility 550 4.16%
Poor sanitation 543 4.1%
Unsafe sex 978 7.39%
Smoking 792 5.99%
Secondhand smoke 114 0.86%
Unsafe water source 597 4.51%
Diet low in vegetables 400 3.02%
Diet low in fruits 137 1.04%
Low physical activity 115 0.87%
Outdoor air pollution 961 7.26%
Household air pollution 1555 11.75%
High body-mass index (obesity) 824 6.23%
High blood sugar 1268 9.58%
High total cholesterol 292 2.21%
High blood pressure 2039 15.41%


Rwanda - Risk of Death in Age : 70+ years
Risk Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Iron deficiency 0 0%
Low bone mineral density 368 2.71%
Drug use 6 0.04%
Alcohol use 935 6.88%
Smoking 524 3.86%
Secondhand smoke 95 0.7%
Household air pollution 1934 14.24%
Outdoor air pollution 1181 8.69%
No access to handwashing facility 667 4.91%
Poor sanitation 616 4.54%
Unsafe water source 679 5%
Unsafe sex 168 1.24%
Low physical activity 251 1.85%
Diet low in vegetables 408 3%
Diet low in fruits 103 0.76%
High cholesterol 329 2.42%
High blood pressure 2868 21.11%
High blood sugar 1897 13.97%
High body-mass index (obesity) 554 4.08%


Rwanda - Number of Deaths by Cancer Type
Cancer Type Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Liver cancer Patients : 448 | Deaths : 157 35.04%
Breast cancer Patients : 2516 | Deaths : 497 19.75%
Larynx cancer Patients : 142 | Deaths : 57 40.14%
Kidney cancer Patients : 491 | Deaths : 50 10.18%
Thyroid cancer Patients : 374 | Deaths : 71 18.98%
Ovarian cancer Patients : 820 | Deaths : 234 28.54%
Stomach cancer Patients : 327 | Deaths : 279 85.32%
Uterine cancer Patients : 443 | Deaths : 99 22.35%
Bladder cancer Patients : 345 | Deaths : 108 31.3%
Cervical cancer Patients : 4393 | Deaths : 775 17.64%
Prostate cancer Patients : 1913 | Deaths : 637 33.3%
Testicular cancer Patients : 30 | Deaths : 8 26.67%
Pancreatic cancer Patients : 186 | Deaths : 115 61.83%
Esophageal cancer Patients : 327 | Deaths : 267 81.65%
Nasopharynx cancer Patients : 245 | Deaths : 60 24.49%
Colon & rectum cancer Patients : 897 | Deaths : 404 45.04%
Non-melanoma skin cancer Patients : 44 | Deaths : 40 90.91%
Lip & oral cancer Patients : 542 | Deaths : 98 18.08%
Brain & nervous system cancer Patients : 330 | Deaths : 153 46.36%
Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Patients : 233 | Deaths : 48 20.6%
Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer Patients : 59 | Deaths : 29 49.15%


Rwanda - Number of Deaths due to Cancer - Age Wise
Age Number of Deaths % of Total Deaths
Under-5s 517 3.63%
5-14 year olds 392 2.76%
15-49 year olds 4493 31.58%
50-69 year olds 6307 44.33%
70+ year olds 2518 17.7%


Source :
http://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/gd004/
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327525347307/8392086-1327528510568/WDR09_bookweb_1.pdf

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