100.00% Increase in Eswatini's Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) - The World Bank Report | 2020 | The Global Graph Skip to main content

100.00% Increase in Eswatini's Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) - The World Bank Report

Last Update: This Article was Last updated on | Published by : | Category : Eswatini

Highlights of this Analysis on Eswatini (Comparison 2010 vs 2018) :

Eswatini a Sub-Saharan Africa regioned country, is categorized as Lower middle income country by United Nations. These below are few data elements published by The World Bank impacting overall Climate Change.

Climate change is an acute threat to global development and efforts to end poverty. Without urgent action, climate change impacts could push an additional 100 million people into poverty by 2030.Countries and communities around the world are already experiencing increased climate change impacts – including droughts, floods, more intense and frequent natural disasters, and sea-level rise – and the poorest and most vulnerable are being hit the hardest.

This Article is about Climate Change

Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.

Data Source : United Nations Population Division. World Urbanization Prospects: 2018 Revision.
  • 4
  • 9
  • 16
  • 20
  • 23
  • 22


Year
Eswatini Urban population (% of total population)
YearValues
19604
19709
198016
199020
200023
201022

Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Aggregation of urban and rural population may not add up to total population because of different country coverages.

Data Source : World Bank staff estimates based on the United Nations Population Division's World Urbanization Prospects: 2018 Revision.
Observation : Eswatini Urban population is in Increasing trend
  • 13170
  • 37691
  • 91709
  • 158128
  • 226826
  • 235413


Year
Eswatini Urban population
YearValues
196013170
197037691
198091709
1990158128
2000226826
2010235413

Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects.

Data Source : World Bank staff estimates based on the United Nations Population Division's World Urbanization Prospects: 2018 Revision.
Observation : Eswatini Urban population growth (annual %) is in Increasing trend
  • 12
  • 11
  • 5
  • 5
  • 1
  • 2


Year
Eswatini Urban population growth (annual %)
YearValues
196012
197011
19805
19905
20001
20102

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.

Data Source : (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Reprot (various years), (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme.
Observation : Eswatini Population, total is in Increasing trend
  • 336583
  • 418747
  • 568315
  • 798507
  • 994108
  • 1057467


Year
Eswatini Population, total
YearValues
1960336583
1970418747
1980568315
1990798507
2000994108
20101057467

Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.

Data Source : Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision, (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Reprot (various years), (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme.
Observation : Eswatini Population growth (annual %) is in Stable trend
  • 2
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 1
  • 1


Year
Eswatini Population growth (annual %)
YearValues
19602
19703
19803
19903
20001
20101

Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.

Data Source : World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/index.htm).
Observation : Eswatini Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 42


Year
Eswatini Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
20000
201042

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year.

Data Source : Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at www.childmortality.org.
Observation : Eswatini Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) is in Decreasing trend
  • 213
  • 182
  • 123
  • 70
  • 121
  • 102


Year
Eswatini Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)
YearValues
1960213
1970182
1980123
199070
2000121
2010102

Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.

Data Source : UNESCO Institute for Statistics (http://uis.unesco.org/)
Observation : Eswatini Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 55
  • 62
  • 61
  • 72


Year
Eswatini Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)
YearValues
19600
19700
198055
199062
200061
201072

Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary and secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.

Data Source : UNESCO Institute for Statistics (http://uis.unesco.org/)
Observation : Eswatini School enrollment, primary and secondary (gross), gender parity index (GPI) is in Stable trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • 1


Year
Eswatini School enrollment, primary and secondary (gross), gender parity index (GPI)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
20001
20101

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

Data Source : World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Observation : Eswatini Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP) is in Decreasing trend
  • 32
  • 29
  • 29
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9


Year
Eswatini Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
YearValues
196032
197029
198029
199013
200011
20109

Droughts, floods and extreme temperatures is the annual average percentage of the population that is affected by natural disasters classified as either droughts, floods, or extreme temperature events. A drought is an extended period of time characterized by a deficiency in a region's water supply that is the result of constantly below average precipitation. A drought can lead to losses to agriculture, affect inland navigation and hydropower plants, and cause a lack of drinking water and famine. A flood is a significant rise of water level in a stream, lake, reservoir or coastal region. Extreme temperature events are either cold waves or heat waves. A cold wave can be both a prolonged period of excessively cold weather and the sudden invasion of very cold air over a large area. Along with frost it can cause damage to agriculture, infrastructure, and property. A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessively hot and sometimes also humid weather relative to normal climate patterns of a certain region. Population affected is the number of people injured, left homeless or requiring immediate assistance during a period of emergency resulting from a natural disaster; it can also include displaced or evacuated people. Average percentage of population affected is calculated by dividing the sum of total affected for the period stated by the sum of the annual population figures for the period stated.

Data Source : EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database: www.emdat.be, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium), World Bank.
Observation : Eswatini Droughts, floods, extreme temperatures (% of population, average 1990-2009) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 9


Year
Eswatini Droughts, floods, extreme temperatures (% of population, average 1990-2009)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
20000
20109

Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management.

Data Source : European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR): http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
Observation : Eswatini Nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 508
  • 517
  • 489
  • 535


Year
Eswatini Nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)
YearValues
19600
19700
1980508
1990517
2000489
2010535

Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production. Each year of data shows the percentage change to that year from 1990.

Data Source : World Bank staff estimates from original source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR): http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/.
Observation : Eswatini Methane emissions (% change from 1990) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • 14


Year
Eswatini Methane emissions (% change from 1990)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
20001
201014

Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.

Data Source : European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR): http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
Observation : Eswatini Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1064
  • 1119
  • 1144
  • 1297


Year
Eswatini Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)
YearValues
19600
19700
19801064
19901119
20001144
20101297

Total greenhouse gas emissions are composed of CO2 totals excluding short-cycle biomass burning (such as agricultural waste burning and Savannah burning) but including other biomass burning (such as forest fires, post-burn decay, peat fires and decay of drained peatlands), all anthropogenic CH4 sources, N2O sources and F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6). Each year of data shows the percentage change to that year from 1990.

Data Source : World Bank staff estimates from original source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR): http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/.
Observation : Eswatini Total greenhouse gas emissions (% change from 1990) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 44
  • 34


Year
Eswatini Total greenhouse gas emissions (% change from 1990)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
200044
201034

Total greenhouse gas emissions in kt of CO2 equivalent are composed of CO2 totals excluding short-cycle biomass burning (such as agricultural waste burning and Savannah burning) but including other biomass burning (such as forest fires, post-burn decay, peat fires and decay of drained peatlands), all anthropogenic CH4 sources, N2O sources and F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6).

Data Source : European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), EDGARv4.2 FT2012: http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
Observation : Eswatini Total greenhouse gas emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 2226
  • 2250
  • 3252
  • 3032


Year
Eswatini Total greenhouse gas emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)
YearValues
19600
19700
19802226
19902250
20003252
20103032

Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Each year of data shows the percentage change to that year from 1990.

Data Source : World Bank staff estimates from original source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR): http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/.
Observation : Eswatini Other greenhouse gas emissions (% change from 1990) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 619
  • 195


Year
Eswatini Other greenhouse gas emissions (% change from 1990)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
2000619
2010195

Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.

Data Source : World Bank staff estimates from original source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR): http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/.
Observation : Eswatini Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • -24
  • 335
  • 1380
  • 656


Year
Eswatini Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)
YearValues
19600
19700
1980-24
1990335
20001380
2010656

Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total) is in Decreasing trend
  • 100
  • 100
  • 100
  • 100
  • 47
  • 36


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total)
YearValues
1960100
1970100
1980100
1990100
200047
201036

Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt) is in Decreasing trend
  • 33
  • 304
  • 447
  • 436
  • 583
  • 381


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt)
YearValues
196033
1970304
1980447
1990436
2000583
2010381

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) is in Stable trend
  • 0
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)
YearValues
19600
19701
19801
19901
20001
20101

Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 53
  • 64


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
200053
201064

Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 653
  • 664


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
2000653
2010664

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions (kt) is in Decreasing trend
  • 33
  • 304
  • 447
  • 436
  • 1239
  • 1045


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions (kt)
YearValues
196033
1970304
1980447
1990436
20001239
20101045

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

Data Source : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Observation : Eswatini CO2 emissions (kg per 2010 US$ of GDP) is in Stable trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 1
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0


Year
Eswatini CO2 emissions (kg per 2010 US$ of GDP)
YearValues
19600
19700
19801
19900
20000
20100

Renewable energy consumption is the share of renewables energy in total final energy consumption.

Data Source : World Bank, Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) database from the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework led jointly by the World Bank, International Energy Agency, and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program.
Observation : Eswatini Renewable energy consumption (% of total final energy consumption) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 49
  • 65


Year
Eswatini Renewable energy consumption (% of total final energy consumption)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
200049
201065

Renewable electricity is the share of electrity generated by renewable power plants in total electricity generated by all types of plants.

Data Source : IEA Statistics © OECD/IEA 2018 (http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp), subject to https://www.iea.org/t&c/termsandconditions/
Observation : Eswatini Renewable electricity output (% of total electricity output) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 42
  • 47


Year
Eswatini Renewable electricity output (% of total electricity output)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
200042
201047

Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.

Data Source : World Bank, Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) database from the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework led jointly by the World Bank, International Energy Agency, and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program.
Observation : Eswatini Access to electricity (% of population) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 46


Year
Eswatini Access to electricity (% of population)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
20000
201046

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.

Data Source : International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, World Bank, International Debt Statistics, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Observation : Eswatini Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 13
  • 10
  • 6
  • 2


Year
Eswatini Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP)
YearValues
19600
19700
198013
199010
20006
20102

Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year.

Data Source : Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Observation : Eswatini Cereal yield (kg per hectare) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 620
  • 967
  • 1053
  • 1634
  • 1284


Year
Eswatini Cereal yield (kg per hectare)
YearValues
19600
1970620
1980967
19901053
20001634
20101284

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

Data Source : Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Observation : Eswatini Forest area (% of land area) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 30
  • 32


Year
Eswatini Forest area (% of land area)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
200030
201032

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

Data Source : Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Observation : Eswatini Forest area (sq. km) is in Increasing trend
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 5134
  • 5586


Year
Eswatini Forest area (sq. km)
YearValues
19600
19700
19800
19900
20005134
20105586

Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.

Data Source : Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Observation : Eswatini Arable land (% of land area) is in Stable trend
  • 0
  • 9
  • 11
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10


Year
Eswatini Arable land (% of land area)
YearValues
19600
19709
198011
199011
200010
201010

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

Data Source : Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Observation : Eswatini Agricultural land (% of land area) is in Stable trend
  • 0
  • 87
  • 78
  • 73
  • 71
  • 71


Year
Eswatini Agricultural land (% of land area)
YearValues
19600
197087
198078
199073
200071
201071

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

Data Source : Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Observation : Eswatini Agricultural land (sq. km) is in Decreasing trend
  • 0
  • 14940
  • 13400
  • 12640
  • 12230
  • 12220


Year
Eswatini Agricultural land (sq. km)
YearValues
19600
197014940
198013400
199012640
200012230
201012220


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